There are significances between Latino children who are from immigrated parents and children who are from U.S. born parents in relations to mental health, stressors to mental health, services obtained, and more. 20.4% of children of immigrants were born outside of the U.S., and only 3.5% of Latino children of native-born parents were born outside of the U.S. (Dettlaff et al., 2009). Children of immigrants are twice as likely as children with U.S. born parents to be reported in fair or poor health; they are also at risk for slower cognitive and language development (Clapp & Fortuny, 2009). According to Dettlaff et al. (2009), 29% of children of immigrants have parents with less a high school education while compared to only 8% of children of …show more content…
born parents, there are several aspects to look into. In general, Latino immigrant families experience more poverty, loneliness, isolation, language difficulties, fear, and hopelessness (Dettlaff & Johnson, 2011). Other than that, Latino immigrant families also face more difficulties regarding acculturation. This is due to the changing of cultural context (Dettlaff & Johnson, 2011). As Latino families move to the U.S., they face the loss of established support systems; they are under the stress of seeking new support systems while experiencing difficulties to gain access to supportive services in the United States (Dettlaff & Johnson, 2011). On the other hand, children who are born in the families with U.S. born parents faces difference challenges. They tend to experience more discriminations towards them, more segregation, and the minority status in the United states (Dettlaff & Johnson, 2011). Children in U.S. born Latino families have a greater involvement in risky sexual behavior, and also show signs of decreasing in academic performance and increasing in school dropout rates (Dettlaff & Johnson, 2011). At the same time, U.S. born Latino children also encounter higher intergenerational-intercultural conflict (Dettlaff & Johnson, 2011). This could be due to the fact that the parents still hold some traditional values while their children are developing U.S. values from school and their peers. Conflict develops when there are disagreements regarding
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As the Latino population in the United States continues to grow, U.S. Census Bureau, 2001, increasing attention is being turned toward understanding the risk and protective factors of immigrant Latino and U.S.-born Latino children and families. The demographic data relating to Latinos in the United States estimate that one of every two people added to the U.S population was Latino, in July 2009 Latino population was the fastest growing minority group U.S Census Bureau, 2010. Despite the increased risk of growing the immigrant families are in lower risk of Social Economic Status, having parents with less education and limited with language and knowledge about education. Immigrating to one place to another is often the most stressful event
Whether children of Mexican immigrants adopt pan-ethnic terms (Latino, Hispanic), American identities, or identities rooted in their home country (Mexican) reflects how they view themselves in relation to the ethnic stratification system in the United States (Tovar, Jessica, and Cynthia Feliciano, 2009). Biculturalism may be expressed using a Mexican-American self-label, as opposed to either an American or Mexican label (Rumbaut, 1994). For those who are viewed as non-white in the United States (including most recent immigrants from Mexico and their children), ethnic identity development is an important part of overall adolescent identity formation, and may be especially complicated for those who grow up in the United States, but have parents from another country (Rumbaut,
Growing up in a marginalized minority is a difficult task because there are a lot of differences between cultures. In the Mexican American culture, family is crucial, this is where one comes when one needs someone to talk to. In my experience, I had was raised being stuck in the middle of two different cultures I had to know what my identity was through, family, school, and through my travels.
When I went outside, I was in America, but inside my house, it was Mexico. My father was the leader of the house. It wasn’t that way for some of my American friends” (Sue & Sue, 2008, p. 375). Reading this quote reminded me of the client because she discussed having trouble adjusting and having her father has head of the household. The textbook included a chapter on counseling Hispanics and Latinos. Sue and Sue discussed the importance of family value among the Hispanic population. Learning this made me understand why it was so important for the client to build a relationship with her mother and father that she had not seen in nearly fourteen years. Sue and Sue explained that “stress found among adult Mexican immigrants results in depressive symptoms…culture conflicts all function as stressors for recent immigrants” (Sue & Sue, 2008, p. 386). Hence, the stress of immigration and cultural conflicts can also contribute to the client’s depressive symptoms. However, as I learned in the diversity course, it is important to evaluate the clients’ importance of their culture and determine whether the depression is a result of cultural conflicts rather than make an
We don’t realize how hard it is for immigrant parents to get their children education, and we judge and hate on something we have never been through. I guess it’s true you never know someone’s pain unless you go through it. Not everyone has the same privileges as others, some have to work twice as hard to try to give their children an opportunity towards an education on the contrary some American families have it simpler. I not blaming people who have families who were born here or say it’s wrong, but many people tend to affront children of immigrant parents and feel like they have the equitableness to say they aren’t suitable to receive public education.
In the article, Community-Based Applied Research with Latino Immigrant families: Informing Practice and Research According to Ethical and Social Justice Principles, researchers conducted a culturally adapted evidence-based parenting intervention (PMTO) combined with a collaborative approach that requires equal participation from researchers and community members (CBPR) (Baumann, Domenech-Rodriguez & Parra-Cardona, 2011). Researchers utilized this integrated model to implement a research parenting intervention program adapted for Latino families within several states. This model follows the social interaction learning theory which places emphasis on child outcomes through parent-child interactions.
“In studies comparing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in whites, African Americans, and Latinos, higher rates of depression, depressive symptoms, and diagnosed mental illness were found in Latinos (Radloff, 1977; Vernon & Roberts, 1982).” Within the Latino community, there are several risk factors leading to these mental illnesses. Some of those include socioeconomic factors, acculturation, and acculturative stress. Although this is the case, there is an underutilization of mental health services by Latinos which is of growing concern. There are several barriers that Latino’s experience when seeking counseling or therapy for mental illness. According to Sue and Sue’s Barriers to Multicultural Counseling and Therapy, effective counselors
Zhou, M. (1997). Growing Up American: The Challenge Confronting Immigrant Children And Children Of Immigrants. Annual Review of Sociology, 23(1), 63-95.
The process of acculturation “a social and psychological process of change when one culture comes in contact with another” does not directly affect mental health but the process can be stressful, even if positive over negative, or a mix of the two. If the process is positive such as “improving one’s life” while challenging may not have a negative effect or be as stressful in the next case where … if the process of acculturation is negative, the process may be stressful making for acculturative stress (Tafoya, 2011). And in the case of a latino/a coming into the United States there are several potential factors leading to stress. Those may include discrimination, whether perceived and/or direct and may come in the form of unfair treatment (Among others) and language barriers. Again, many potentially stressful issues that come with one culture coming in contact with another, and the process of becoming accustomed to a new culture (Torres, Driscoll, & Voell, 2012).
Everyday discrimination is not the only precursor of chronic health conditions, but familismo has also been a contributing factor. Familismo is deeply rooted in the Latinos culture that passed away from generation to generation as ‘‘features of familismo such as pride, belonging, and obligation members of the family continue to be distinctive attributes across generations regardless of the length of time one has resided in the US’’ (Ayo´n et al., 2010, p.743). Consequently, this intimate relationship among the members of Latinos family creates a high volume of mental stress that eventually deteriorates their health conditions. A survey conducted by Ayo´n et al. (2010) showed one identical outcome for two different groups. Based on Parents
Despite these things, I have learned about myself while reading this article is that I do not have a basic understanding of some of the terminology frequently used by Latino persons. Additionally, the blueprint at the end of the article provided useful suggestions on working with the Latino population. Overall, I found this article to be extremely helpful in gaining new insight on some of the biopsychosocial considerations to have when working with this population.
Universality in parenting is arguing that even with different ethnic backgrounds and parenting styles, child development outcomes turn out to be similar. Phinney, Ong, and Madden (2000) wanted to find out if there were commonalities in developmental processes among immigrant and non-immigrant groups. They studied those groups to see if living in America caused them to change their collectivist values over to individualistic values. They observed patterns among three immigrant groups: Vietnamese, Armenian, and Mexican. They also had two non-immigrant groups, the Europeans, and the African Americans. They separated the immigrant groups into two cohorts, cohort one being U.S.-born adolescents and parents who have longer residence in the United States, and cohort two being foreign-born adolescents with parents who have not lived in the U.S. that long. Participants were given questionn...
Research indicates rate discrepancies are a parent stressor that compromises supportive parenting practices. Unsupportive parenting practices in conjunction with different acculturation rates often result in poor mental health and academic outcomes for children of refugees (Kim, Chen, Wang, Shen, & Orozco-Lapray, 2013).