“General deterrence” means that if the public sees or hears of punishment that was rendered, the knowledge might deter other citizens from committing similar offenses (Levinson 2002). Both of these types of punishment should deter individuals from committing crimes. Jeremy Bentham believed that three aspects of punishment had an impact on deterrence: severity, celerity (speed) and certainty. In Bentham’s view, punishment was most effective when the level of severity fit the crime and that the punishment occurred
Social control theory has become one of the more widely accepted explanations in the field of criminology in its attempt to account for rates in crime and deviant behavior. Unlike theories that seek to explain why people engage in deviant behavior, social control theories approach deviancy from a different direction, questioning why people refrain from violating established norms, rules, and moralities. The theory seeks to explain how the normative systems of rules and obligations in a given society serve to maintain a strong sense of social cohesion, order and conformity to widely accepted and established norms. Central to this theory is a perspective which predicts that deviant behavior is much more likely to emerge when social constraints and bonds between the individual and rest of society are either weak or simply not present. The bonds that discourage crime are strengthen through relationships between the individual and social institutions such as the family, schools, judicial/policing systems etc.
Yes, general deterrence may use certain individuals as an example for society, but if the punishment for that certain individual is strict enough and is able to deter others from society from committing crime it is doing its job. “General deterrence are actions to persuade others from committing criminal acts” (Couture, 2014, p.128). I feel more people are being deterred from crime by general deterrence rather than specific deterrence. Also as sanctions take place, incarceration would be best for general deterrence. Incarceration in jail or prison should deter society from committing crimes by people in society not wanting to be incarcerated.
They do this by weighing the consequences of bad actions with the perceived benefits of good actions, then decide whether to proceed in the direction of good or bad. The fourth premise is that social control is a response to deviance and crime; coercive forms of social control can regulate or reduce crime and deviance. This is possible through the final premise, which is that the fear of consequences imposed by the state influences members of society to adhere to societal norms. The adherence comes from human beings being afraid of suffering a painful and horrible death, whether physical or societal. The social control theory holds strong validation in explaining why most people follow the values and norms of societ... ... middle of paper ... ...n from doing it again.
Whereas conflict theorists believe that a society’s inequalities are reproduced in its definitions of deviance, so that less powerful groups are more likely to be deemed deviant and criminalized. In Merton’s structural strain theory claims that the tension or strain among socially acceptable... ... middle of paper ... ...ead to these patterns of criminal behavior. There is an ongoing debate about the role of punishment in the criminal justice system, a collection of social institutions that create and enforce laws. Deterrence is a method to punish that depend on the threat of a strict penalty to discourage individuals from committing the crimes. Retribution is a method to punish that stresses vengeance or payback for the crime as the suitable goal.
If moral codes are integrated into the individuals’ life, and they have a stake in their wider community, they will voluntarily limit their probability to commit deviant acts or crime. The theory seeks to understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality developing in individuals. Finally the labeling theory “labels” the deviant acts or crimes. Socially these gives the crime or act a face which makes the offender recognizable by his other act rather than the content of their character prior to the deviant act. Learning theory has been widely discussed in my forums, being taught to be a deviant is the basis of a criminal at its purest form.
The deterrence approach deters people from engaging in illegal acts through threats of punishment. If the criminal justice system increases the severity of the punishment, there would be a reduction in the crime rate. Restitution is a form of punishment by which the payment of the offender to the victim for the harm caused by the offender’s wrongful acts. Retribution involves the idea of “let the punishment fit the crime” and advocates that since the felon harmed society, society is entitled to inflict harm in return. The rehabilitation punishment approach intends to reform a convict that he or she can lead a productive life free from crime.
The second principle, Reductivism, believes that deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation is the best strategy to use to punish, its aim is to reduce crime and use punishment to serve a purpose. This essay will look closer and outline the purpose of just deserts and deterrence as punishment in society, although these punishments are used widely across most crimes, this essay will look specifically at prolific offenders. Emile Durkheims theory of collective consciousness is that everybody in society has common beliefs and sentiments, and to think or act differently would be a moral outrage against that. So crime is inevitable, there will always be people who think differently to others in an organic solidarity society. In the 17th and 18th century, the purpose of punishment in society was to seek revenge and retribution for the crimes, however, in the 18th century classicist criminology thinking emerged in response to the cruel punishments that were handed out.
The theory of deterrence aims to prevent offenders from repeating the crime that they have been convicted of. Sanctions wit... ... middle of paper ... ...e and proportionate to the seriousness of the offence that has been committed. That each case should be judged on the individual aggravating and mitigating factors associated with the offence and on the other individual details of the offence. The circumstances of the offender and the harm caused to the victim of the offence or to the community should have an impact on the severity of the punishment that the offender will receive. It is therefore accurate to say that punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the crime.
Besides positively engaging offenders, communities that practice restorative justice can also seek to shame offenders for their acts, without blaming the offender directly for their actions. One such method of restorative justice that communities utilize is the reintegrative shaming theory. Developed by Braithwaite in 1989, the theory states that societies that aim to create shame on the act of crime will reduce crime rates (Braithwaite, 2001). The theory