(Pavia et al 278). The lower layer was then extracted by a separatory funnel. The layer was extracted, and then reextracted with ether, as quickly as possibly, because it would solidify and prevent the layer to be completely extracted. The remaining portions of the organic layer were combined and dried with granular anhydrous sodium sulfate; this drying agent is used to absorb any water in a solution and should thus, result in a colorless solution. The dried ether solution solution was also rinsed with diethyl ether and the solvent was evaporated.
In this experiment, the goal is to separate naphthalene and benzoic acid from one gram of a crude mixture containing them both, using extraction. A general requirement of a solvent in extraction is solvating one of the pure compounds in solution but not the other. Position in the separatory funnel is determined by density of each layer. The denser layer will be on the bottom of the separatory funnel while the less dense layer will be the top layer of the separatory funnel. For extraction to be used as an effective method for separation, the components of a mixture that need to be recovered must not be soluble in the same solvent.
The labels have fallen off of two bottles thought to contain solid sodium chloride or solid sodium carbonate. Describe a simple experiment which would allow you to determine which bottle contains which solid. For the solid sodium chloride, using distilled water will make it an aqueous solution. Just like before using red and blue litmus paper will only indicate that the sodium chloride is neutral. The same can be done for sodium carbonate since it is soluble in distilled water, making it easy to determine whether it is an acid or base when using litmus paper.
The oil was removed from the sample by filter paper wiping it with,so no more oil can be seen. The scale was not a very sensitive one and we could weigh with a margin of error of 0.01g. Then I placed the sample in a beaker that contained 100 cm3 of distilled water. Then after a while we so bubbles, which confirmed that a reaction was taking place. The reaction will look like this: 2Li (s) + 2H2O(l) ---à2LiOH(l) + H2(g) But since the distilled water was in excess there will also be a lot of H2O and OH in the beaker and the solution will therefore be a hydroxide solution.
Starting this experiment, we knew that the extraction was going to form varies layers due to the density differences. When placing three different substances, we saw that two layers formed because the Clove Oil is soluble in MTBE, but not in water. In order, to get the organic layer we used separatory funnel to take out the excess substances and leave the oil layer. Then we transferred to a beaker and dried with Magnesium Sulfate. Lastly, we filtered the liquid using funnel; we placed the liquid to boil, let it cool to room temperature.
In order to separate the mixture of fluorene, o-toluic acid, and 1, 4-dibromobenzene, the previously learned techniques of extraction and crystallization are needed to perform the experiment. First, 10.0 mL of diethyl ether would be added to the mixture in a centrifuge tube (1) and shaken until the mixture completely dissolved (2). Diethyl ether is the best solvent for dissolving the mixture, because though it is a polar molecule, its ethyl groups make it a nonpolar solvent. The compounds, fluorene and 1, 4-dibromobenzene, are also nonpolar; therefore, it would be easier for it to be dissolved in this organic solvent. Once the mixture had been completely dissolved, the solution was transferred to a separatory funnel.
The filler that are used are Graphite powder (73µm), Aluminium powder (73µm) and Alumina (30-50nm). For reference pure epoxy specimens were prepared. Then specimens with hybrid filler modified epoxy resin were prepared these specimens were compared for its flexural properties. Initially the resin is weighed, and hardner is added about 10% by weight of matrix to the resin system and is stirred slowly so as to avoid trapping of air bubbles. Since the process is exothermic, once when the gellation time starts the heat will be expelled, the mixture is then poured in the mould.
The observed melting point for the crude acetanilide was 114.3 °C - 115.7 °C. The second procedure dealt with finding a suitable solvent to recrystallize the crude acetanilide. A sand bath was set up and 0.5 mL of each solvent was added to 50 mg of acetanilide in four different test tubes. The four solvents used to test the solubility of the acetanilide were water, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexanes. If the solid dissolved in the solvent at room temperature then it was too soluble and that solvent could be eliminated.
When performing types of chromatography, like TLC, the polarity of solvents is extremely important. This lab uses TLC plates, five solvents (hexane, toluene, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and acetone), and small evaporating dishes to determine which solvent would be best to use in column chromatography. The least polar solvent is hexane, which has a polarity index of 0.1. Toluene has a polarity index of 2.4, while ethyl acetate’s is almost twice that at 4.4. By comparing the polarity indexes, you can tell what solvent will separate your dots of product on your TLC plates the best (Skoog 761).
Our design’s purpose is using the sand to strain the smaller particles to allow the activated charcoal to adsorb odorous or colored substances from gases or liquids, then the pebbles to get rid of the large visual participles and the coffee filter’s purpose is to make sure the visual impurities cannot go through when filtering. We followed a series of step to filter the water in this order: aeration, coagulation, and filtration. Step... ... middle of paper ... ...ter without any visual impurities, but still undrinkable due to still containing the same water hardness level to causes the water to still be undrinkable, too little ammonia for soft water, and enough phosphate for aquatic plant growth. The results show nitrates PH Level 20 to 0ppm, copper 4PH level to 0ppm, iron 1PH level to 0ppm, chlorine ppm 1 to 0ppm, and bacteria. Unfortunately, water hardness or magnesium & calcium 280-ppm level to 280-ppm level and phosphate level 2 ppm to level 1-ppm remains, but ammonia 4 ppm to .50 ppm got worsen.