Knowledge Transfer And Management: The Definition Of Knowledge Management

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Based on the articles reviewed, there is no specific definition of knowledge transfer as there are numerous studies and definitions proposed. Similar to the definition of knowledge, the term knowledge transfer itself offers a wide range of explanation. Szulanski (1996) proposed the definition of knowledge transfer as a process of dyadic exchange between the sender and receiver. He also states that how well knowledge remains accessible within a firm depends upon the nature of that knowledge, from where (or whom) it comes, who gets it, and the organizational context within which any transfer occurs. The encyclopedia of Knowledge Management (Schwartz, 2006) offers wide range definitions of knowledge transfer. First definition is slightly adapted…show more content…
Some also conceptualize knowledge transfer as a crucial process of civilization and that it’s central to learning which in turn is fundamental to development (Paulin & Suneson, 2012). Saka-Helmhout (2009) conceptualizes knowledge transfer as learning processes whereby Kalling (2003) extend the definition as the process whereby both parties within an organization learn from each other. Despite numerous definitions of knowledge transfer, most researchers adopted the definition from Argote & Ingram (2000) which refers knowledge transfer as the learning process through which one unit (refers to a group, department or division in an organization) is affected by the experience of another. They deepen the meaning by pointing out that the transfer of knowledge in the organization can be observed through changes or outcomes of the recipients. Knowledge transfer in this paper refers to the exchange and receipt of knowledge from the expatriate and HCN and is measured in two distinctive area which is social capital factor (shared vision and trust) and individual factor (feedback seeking behaviors and cultural…show more content…
Many researchers and authors have failed to differentiate the usage of the term knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing and at times, both terms has been discussed together as having the same concept (Liyanage et al., 2009). Jonsson (2008) also stated that they are sometimes used interchangeably and are assumed to have overlapping content. In order to understand knowledge transfer, the term knowledge sharing shouldn’t be ignored and comparative items can best describe both terms. For example, Ajzen (1991) and Gagne (2009) expressed knowledge sharing as an intentional behavior influenced by the attitude of that particular person, by social norms or by the sense of empowerment. Although McDermott (1999) emphasizes that knowledge sharing is a conscious act to guide another individual through his or her thinking, Gagné (2009) believes knowledge sharing at the individual level is very suitable to explain in a behavioral perspective. In contrast, one of the most commonly cited about knowledge transfer is Szulanski who in numerous articles has developed the concept of it. The earlier section of this paper has clearly indicated that knowledge transfer refers to a formally organized activity. For example, knowledge transfer are the passing of information or a specific

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