Egyptians first attempt of artificial mummification was during the Archaic Period (3050-2663 BC). Early mummification techniques began in the Old Kingdom (2663- 2195). By the Middle Kingdom embalmers started placing masks over corpses, the most famous was the mask of King Tutankhamun. Not only did King Tutankhamun have the most famous mask, but also he had the most famous tomb. His coffin was found in 1923 in Thebes, Egypt.
The Egyptian Pyramids When most people think of Ancient Egypt they think of Pyramids. To construct such great monuments required a mastery of architecture, social organization, and art that few cultures of that period could achieve. The oldest pyramid, the Step-Pyramids, grow out of the abilities of two men, King Djoser and Imhotep. Djoser, the second king of 3rd dynasty, was the first king to have hired an architect, Imhotep, to design a tomb (Time-Life Books, 74). Imhotep was known as the father of mathematics, medicine, architecture, and as the inventor of the calendar (White, 40).
The seated statue of Khafre from the fourth dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2520- 492 BC) was created by an unknown artist. The artists of these two statues captured the royalty of the kings by seating them on a throne to inspire tremendous awe in all that beheld each statue. In honor of the ancient Olympic games, Phidias built the statue of Zeus. The statue rested on a pedestal 3 feet high and 22 feet wide and nearly 40 feet high in the Temple of Zeus. It barely fit into the temple when it was completed and his head was very close to the roof.
He also moved the Egyptian capital from Thebes to Amarna to help with his monotheistic push. His time on the throne is known as the Amarna period. He was also known for being the first ruler to request a temple to be made for him and his wife. The successor to Akhenaten was none other than his son Tutankhamun. He is the most widely known pharaoh in Egyptian history.
Egypt have the biggest and the greatest collection of all monuments from the ancient world. Even In the days of Ancient Egypt when powerful pharaohs ruled over Egypt the Pyramids were considered magnificent wonders. Such huge wonders constructed thousands of years back with such precision and skill to last thousands of years can only be seen as conclusive evidence that the advanced religious architecture of ancient Egypt is magnificent. Today, the remains of 35
To prevent this there were elaborate and hidden passage within the pyramid which led to the pharaoh as well as he earthly possessions. Although it is uncertain this ingenious design the hide the pharaoh within the pyramid can be seen on earlier pyramids such as the step pyramid of King Zoser, which was designed by the famous architect, Imhotep. The pyramid of Khufu, who ruled the fourth dynasty roughly around 2600 B.C., has been the tallest structure on earth for more then 43 centuries ending its record in the 19th century. This pyramid is was so carefully constructed that each side of the pyramid points to the cardinal points on a compass. The angling slope of the pyramid is 51 degrees and 51 minutes.
The sculptures and paintings produced during the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty set the standard of Egyptian art until the end of the dynastic periods. Egypt was a culture steeped in religion and bound by the ideas of order and balance; and so was their artwork. Because most pieces produced were depictions of reigning pharaoh’s divine relationship with the Egyptian gods and his role as king of Egypt (Hawass), the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty gave life to specific cannon in Egyptian art called the “law of frontality (Egyptian Art).” All gods, pharaohs and noblemen would be depicted based on this standard. These standards left little room for artistic innovation until the reign of Akhenaten at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The pharaoh Akhenaten abandoned the artistic style and religion of the Old Kingdom and created his own called the Armarna Style.
The Sphinx is half animal and half human with a lion’s body and human face, however many were unsure of who’s face it was. One of the other unanswered questions was who built it and why? In the documentary, “Secrets of the Sphinx” these questions are answered with different theories. The sphinx is the biggest individual stone in the world, one of the most studied monuments, and one of the monuments seen in the Giza plateau. The sphinx brought many theories and one that caught my attention is that the Sphinx was built by Djedefhor, son of Khufu and self proclaimed son of the sun-god Ra.
There is one other thing that stirs the imagination, the building bares the name of the famous Cleopatra and her son, whose father was Julius Caesar. It is possible that these celebrate personalities climbed the same stairs and contemplated, on high, the same landscape which stretches for miles below. In Summation, some of the most precious examples of architecture from the ancient world are of the ancient Egyptians. Although the ancient Egyptians lived in a primitive world, they proved to have great knowledge for building lasting structures that would forever have a unique and majestic influence on the world.
The first kingdom is known as the Old Kingdom which ranged from 2650-2150 B.C. The architecture in the old kingdom was mainly influence by the king’s first minister Imhotep. He was very good at his craft and was a skilled architect. The famous Step Pyramid in Saqqara was said to be designed by Imhotep himself; one of the first ministers of King Zoser. The most famous pyramids of the old kingdom are the three great pyramids in Giza.