Ketosis Case Study

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Week 7 Assignment 1—Metabolism

Ketosis develops in the postabsorptive state. What is ketosis? Why does it develop? What metabolic effects does it have?

Ketosis means our bodies are using fat for energy. Ketones (also called ketone bodies) are molecules generated during fat metabolism. Most of the fats our bodies break down for energy is converted into ATP, which is the “energy molecule.” Ketones are produced as part of the process. When people eat fewer carbohydrates, more ketones are generated. Some of these ketones (acetoacetate and B-hydroxybutyrate) are used for energy; the heart muscle and kidneys prefer ketones to glucose. Most of the cells in the body can use ketones as part of their energy. However, this is not true for acetone which cannot be used, and is excreted as waste mostly in the urine and breath. Sometimes a metabolic condition develops that causes a distinct odor in the breath. If there is enough acetone in the urine which can be detected with a Ketostix, this detection in the urine is called “ketosis.” Another metabolic condition is Ketoacidosis which can develop in people with Type 1 diabetes which may be confused with normal ketosis. (

What happens during protein catabolism? How is this related to nitrogen balance?

. The body can synthase 100,000 to 140,000 different proteins with various forms functions, and structures. Each of these proteins contains some of the same 20 amino acids. In normal conditions, cellular proteins are recycled in the cytosol, peptide bonds are broken, and the free amino acids are used in new proteins. If other energy sources are inadequate, mitochondria can generate ATP by breaking down amino acids in the TCA cycle. The average ATP yield is similar to that o...

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...e concentrations in blood and the amount excreted in urine in a 24-hour period, a clinician can easily estimate the GFR. GFR is equal to the amount secreted divided by the plasma concentration. The GFR is usually reported in milliliters per minute. A more accurate GFR determination can be performed using insulin, which is not metabolized in the body, and is neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the kidney tubules. During a single day, the glomeruli generate about 180 liters (48 gal) of filtrate, nearly 70 times the total plasma volume, 99 percent of which is reabsorbed. This factor makes you appreciate tubular reabsorption!


Martini, Frederic H. & Nath, Judi L. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology. 8th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions, 2008. Vital Book file. South University.
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