Socialism granted a powerful language for the working-class to express their interests. Many workers, who were enfranchised in the latter portion of the century joined political parties espousing this doctrine. Socialism existed before Karl Marx presented himself to the scene. In fact, Marx drew from the theories of the foremost prophets of socialism: Henri de Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier in France, and Robert Owen in Great Britain. However, he gave these theories his own style, and in the end his form became the dominant idea of socialism.
Long before the mid-19th century, he is to be discovered in the written works of the continually developing number of the working classes, 'arranged halfway between the labourers on the one side and the capitalists on the other. This is far from the worn out dichotomy of ordinary and middle class. Eagleton 's touch is less certain concerning the human condition under communism. In attempting to counter claims of utopianism, he goes too far in proposing that Marxism holds out no guarantee of human flawlessness" and "jealousy, animosity, command, possessiveness and rivalry would even now exist. Engels, however, was clear that the rise from socialism to communism involved a powerful change.
It stressed on the difference between the appearance and essence of things. Marx saw that economic and social systems developed set of ideologies and ways of seeing them that were self-justifying. He stressed the importance of going beyond how things presented themselves and identifying the underlying realities. A good example is that capitalism looks like it is based on free labor, but it actually focuses on exploiting, and a monopoly of the production means. Workers, on the other hand, cannot work without the production means since their freedom really is a chance to starve or work.
The origins of Marxism arose in the mid nineteenth century when Carl Marx wanted to make a completely equal society (Eaton). Also he was not the only one to have these kinds of views. There were several socialist who tried to reach out and explain what was going on. He basically tried to explain what was wrong with society at the time and how we can change for the better, in his view. Marxism was an opposition to the three main affecting the workers movement, Anarchism, Utopian, and the heavy tendencies of the bourgeoisie (Eaton).
His theory of communism is based on the “ultimate end of human history” because there will be freedom for all humankind. Marx saw communism as the ideal society because it is "the genuine resolution of the conflict between man and man- the true resolution of the strife between existence and essence...between freedom and necessity" that capitalism fosters. Marx was also committed to the notion that theory and action go hand in hand. Marx dismissed earlier thinkers because they (philosophers) "have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it." He also stated "Ideas cannot carry out anything at all.
Curiously, Marxism was only partially originated by Karl Marx. A great deal of the philosophy behind and rationalization for Marxism- perhaps even the larger part of that thought- was from Marx's greatest contemporary, Friedrich Engels. Engels and Marx worked together to write The Communist Manifesto, and, after Marx's death, Engels became the surviving originator of Marxism; it was he who carried Marx's torch, and who published the latter of Marx's philosophies- though whether or not he was true to Marx's beliefs, and whether he altered them slightly according to his own, no one can be sure (18). Despite this, however, Marx's beliefs were relatively clearly expressed and published, beginning, in part, with the Manifesto. "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 9).
Inspired by the works of Karl Marx, V.I. Lenin nonetheless drew his ideology from many other great 19th century philosophers. However, Marx’s “Communist Manifesto” was immensely important to the success of Russia under Leninist rule as it started a new era in history. Viewed as taboo in a capitalist society, Karl Marx started a movement that would permanently change the history of the entire world. Also, around this time, the Populist promoted a doctrine of social and economic equality, although weak in its ideology and method, overall.
However it fails to allow for the development of the individual. In theory, a socialistic system is utopia, however. I tend to go with the old adage, "the road to a socialistic hell is paved with the best of intentions." Further, I agree with Hayak's assumptions regarding the rule of law, about government directing economic activity, and that there is good reason to suspect those who rise to the top. I would agree that these are as valid today as when they were written in 1944.
Robert Reich and Carnegie would most likely agree on the average man having the opportunity to thrive. However, Carl Marx and Carnegie views on property, wealth, and competition were complete opposites. Both writers agreed on issues regarding the common man in the industrial era and its problems. Marx claimed that changing history in the industrial era would bring a new era. On the other hand, Carnegie believed
Even Ricardo himself, who made great strides in the development of LTV, made apparent his concerns with the theory, including the repercussions of changes in market demand as well as the existence of entities with economic value that have no labor embodied in them, such as nature. Of course, one cannot assume that one will find all of the answers in the introductory chapters of Marx’s life work.