In the spirit of ensuring that trials against children were handled in a speedy and in a confidential manner, children below fourteen years were tried immediately before two magistrates (19th Century Bedford Gaol). These early ref... ... middle of paper ... ... been recognized as criminal proceedings. The double jeopardy clause in the Fifth Amendment prohibits the state from trying an offender as juvenile and later as an adult for the same crime. Works Cited Einstein law, (2008). Lawyershop.com.
Once the prosecutor has made the decision to charge a juvenile with an excluded offense, the case must be filed in criminal court (Statutory Exclusion, 2008). A more complex method of waiver is the concurrent jurisdictio... ... middle of paper ... ...Like Adults Make a Difference? : http://www.pbs.org/wgbh Juvenile Justice Reforms in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved September 20, 2011, from Juvenile Transfer to Criminal Courts: http://www.ojjdp.gov Males, M. and D. Macallair (2000).
Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice. Griffin, P., Addie, S., Adams, B., & Firestine, K. Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2011). Trying juveniles as adults: An analysis of state transfer laws and reporting (NCJ 232434). Retrieved from website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/232434.pdf Kupchik, A.
Some parental responsibility laws hold parents legally accountable for allowing their children to engage in conduct that would not be illegal if done by an adult, such as truancy or breaking curfew laws (Shubik & Kendall, p. 385)Truancy and curfew violations are considered “status crimes,” because they penalize conduct that is only illegal based on the status “age” of the person engaged in the conduct. The U.S. Supreme Court has upheld the power of states to monitor school attendance. Courts have also upheld parental responsibility under curfew laws applied to minors, based on the vulnerability of children and the public interest in protecting their welfare (Shubik & Kendall, p. 386). Parental responsibility statutes punish parents for the acts of their children, and ultimately punish them for either their negligence or ignorance. Parental responsibility laws make parents criminally liable because they have not fulfilled their parental duty to keep their kids from breaking the law.
Retrieved June 5, 2010, from http://www.unicef.org/crc/ Mallett, C. (2003). Socio-Historical Analysis of Juvenile Offenders on Death Row. Criminal Law Bulletin , 77-78. Ortiz, A. (2004a, January).
Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/teen-behavior-and-discipline When Juveniles Are Tried in Adult Criminal Court | Nolo.com. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2014, from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/juveniles-youth-adult-criminal-court-32226.html
Through the establishment of Juvenile Courts which were criminal courts in terms of the procedures and giving them jurisdiction over the care and protection issues. The Juvenile Courts became the family law courts which dispensed family justice. The courts and the state can intervene for the first time in working-class family life when children are seen to be immoral, conditions which were regarded as neglect included: truancy, begging, being beyond control etc... Molony Committee The Mol... ... middle of paper ... ...llows the authorities to tackle their delinquent behaviour but to also seek to reform their personality and way of life inside an institutionalized setting in which thorough discipline was imposed and which then imitated the harsh conditions of industrial employment. Works Cited Brown, S. (2005) Understanding Youth and Crime: Listening to Youth. England: Open University Press Hendrick, H. (2006) ‘Histories of Youth Crime and Justice’, In B. Goldson and J. Muncie (eds) Youth Crime and Justice.
Maroney, T. (2009). The False Promise of Adolescent Brain Science in Juvenile Justice. Notre Dame Law Review, 85, 89. Steinberg, L. (2000). Should juvenile offenders be tried as adults?
Journal of Criminal Investigation, 5(1), 86-91. Pitts, W. J., Givens, E., & McNeeley, S. (2009). The need for a holistic approach to specialized domestic violence court programming: Evaluating offender rehabilitation needs and recidivism. Juvenile & Family Court Journal, 60(3), 1-21. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6988.2009.01029.x. Policastro, C., & Payne, B. K. (2013).
Contesting childhood in the us justice system: The transfer of juveniles to adult criminal court. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 12(4), 461-478. Scott, E. , & Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescent development and the regulation of youth crime. Future of Children, 18(2), 15-33.