Juveniles commit acts that if committed by an adult would be criminally liable. Thus, juveniles who commit certain acts come within the area of responsibility of law enforcement officers. These lawbreakers are called delinquents in the jargon of criminal professional within the field. There are individuals that argue that the delinquency of juveniles up to the age fifteen are a problem for the police and welfare workers (Prettyman, E, B., 1961). However, this is based on individual opinion that may not be accurate in describing all juveniles within the justice system. Meaning that juveniles may be more problematic in the inner city due to higher police presence in comparison to individual who live in the suburbs or country. Nonetheless, despite the location of the delinquent, if one comes into contact with law enforcement either through being caught/reported for petty thievery or for more violent offenses such as murder, they will have will eventually be subjected to judicial
It is understood that there is no one single cause for juvenile delinquency. There are many factors involved, including biological, environmental, social, and punitive influences. Nathan Fisher acknowledges this in the article “Factors Leading to Bad Juvenile Behavior,” written for Demand Media. Recognizing that there is not a single issue related to why juveniles become offenders helps develop effective prevention and intervention techniques to address the issue of delinquency.
Many in the juvenile justice field have tried to understand the cause of juvenile delinquency. There are many different theories describe the cause and effect of variables and how they react. However, through much research, we have concluded there is not just one single path or journey that determines the fate of the juvenile. There are many different risk factors that build in order to increase a youth's chance of becoming an offender. This is kind of like a domino effect. Risk factors are described as the characteristics that present themselves to determine if the individual or youth will become a delinquent. These factors may include; home life, income status, gender, and social. It can either be one or all that play a part in the way the
There has always been alarm and despair over escalating juvenile crime. In the 1950s there were reports about the mushrooming problems with youthful gangs in the big cities. In the 1960s we began to hear about a surge of juvenile crime in areas that had been regarded as virtually crime free. In the suburbs as well as the inner cities, youngsters were dropping out of school, using drugs and committing crimes. In the 1970s and 1980s, juvenile court dockets became increasingly jammed with criminal cases. According to the Department of Justice, the percentage increases in arrests from 1985 to 1994 have been greater for juveniles than for adults. During 1994 alone, 2.7 million juveniles were arrested. During the latter part of this century, juvenile courts that customarily provided social services in order to rehabilitate rather than punish lawbreakers were faced with an onslaught of children who were not simply wayward youths, but hardened repeat offenders. The 1980s witnessed an increasingly desperate outcry for courts to take more extreme measures to contain juvenile crime, which is assuming ever more serious forms.
Juvenile delinquency is the participation of illegal behavior by minors. Usually crimes committed by a child under the age of 18. The young people who usually live in difficult circumstances are the ones who are at risk of becoming “delinquents.” Juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal. This is a local problem happening in our cities today. It is easy for people to view “juvenile delinquents” as thugs or criminals. The reality is many of these so called “delinquents” has either been abused, lack proper supervision and support, or have been untreated fairly in schools.
Juvenile delinquency is a problem that affects society as a whole. Understanding Juvenile delinquency is important because it is part of trying to figure out how people in American society should react to it; specifically, in terms of law enforcement officers, their agencies, and State legislators. When deviant behavior becomes "continuous, chronic and widespread it gets perceived as a significant part of the population as threatening to the general well-being of society" (Thompson and Bynum, 2010, p. 44). This is a societal problem that requires attention from various forms of social control. However, a lot of the burden is absorbed by an imperfect Juvenile Justice System. As time has passed, argument has ensued over what should be done with the Juvenile Court System. Should the court system be reformed or simply abolished? Barry C. Feld believes that there are enough factors to support the abolishment of the Juvenile Court System and supports an integrated approach (Hickey, 2010). Others, like Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg, believe that the transfer of kids "into adult court is unnecessary, harmful and racist" (Kelly, 2010, Lecture Unit 3). While reforming the system may seem like the best idea, there are certain factors that inhibit proper changes from being made. Creating a separate court system for juveniles has caused a number of consequences for youth.
Across the wide body of studies delving into delinquency in America, it is easy to locate research on and analysis of minorities, underprivileged socioeconomic urban centers, and turbulent family structures. However, this leaves a significant section of the delinquent population largely neglected: white middle-class youth. Contrary to the factors shown to affect delinquency in others and the applications of theory applied to them, the issues plaguing this particular portion of adolescents are in many cases entirely unique, suggesting the necessity of a more nuanced approach from angles that have up until fairly recently remained unexplored.
As stated by Bartol and Bartol “Juvenile delinquency is an imprecise, nebulous, social, clinical, and legal label for a wide variety of law- and norm-violating behavior” (2011, Pg 139). The juvenile delinquency term has come to imply disgrace in today's correctional institution. Our government is up hold to procedures and expected to come with a solution to solving the delinquent problem. An underage offender can be labeled a delinquent for breaking any number of laws, ranging from robbery to running away from home, and especially being involved in school violence. The following situations faced by correction officials when dealing with juvenile delinquents will be examined. Three main areas (child development, punishments, and deterrence tactics) will be briefly analyzed to give adequate explanation of the issue.
In this modern era, human beings are confronted by a society that has become more mobile, more complex and more dysfunctional. Theft, suicide and murder are common problems usually addressed in the juvenile court system (Bernard, 2012). The causes and conditions of youth delinquency are often obvious: truancy, poverty, gangs and drug abuse are among the leading factors that drive the youth to delinquency. In the quest to provide an effective justice system, the system has to be grounded in the values of fairness, rehabilitation and redemption. As a result, the system should be able to make a clear difference between adults and the youth, and should ensure the proper treatment of youth in regard to their age. This forms the very reason why the juvenile court system was created-because the emotional, developmental and behavioral nature of the youth is different from the adults (Butts, 2002). Unfortunately, the juvenile court system in society has been broken- there is mistreatment of the young people in this system and sadly, not much is being done about it.
In today’s America, Juvenile Delinquency might not be at an all time high but is still a very staggering and concerning when it comes to statistics. In 2012, there were 3,941 arrests for every 100,000 youths, from the ages of 10 through 17, as opposed to 9,500 in 1995 (OJJDP). Although there was been a 41% decrease in arrests, these numbers and statistics are always fluctuating year to year. There is a saying by, George Gordon Byron that “History, with all her volumes vast, hath but one page”, referring to history always repeating its self. If this statement holds true today’s society will have a complex, difficult, and tasking burden of juvenile delinquents who will become adult criminals. A community, in which juvenile delinquents exist, must have the proper tools and programs to help divert youth from taking the wrong paths in life that will eventually lead to a doomed society. Furthermore, taking the time to understand the cause of delinquency is a crucial element in its prevention.
Societies interest in fighting juvenile’s recidivism is positive and rewarding to benefit of the community. Therefore, community safety is an reasonable reason to implement community based programs. “Studies have shown that many community -based correctional programs reduce recidivism and are less expensive than confinement” (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, p.210).Also, communities had the sense that firm action is paramount to divert juvenile offenders from committing crime. “Some advocates believed childhood intervention programs were having an impact on future juvenile delinquency and criminality rates” (Zigler, Edward, & Taussig,
Purposes: This study intends to use the perspective of three criminal theories: Social disorganization, Differential association and labeling theory to understand and eventually address the issues surrounding education, socioeconomic status and social dilemmas in respect to incarceration amongst juveniles. Specifically, the study intends to answer the following research questions: Does education, socioeconomic status and social dilemmas affect incarceration among Juveniles in America? How can education, socioeconomic status and social problems decrease the rate of incarceration among Juveniles in America? What are some environmental factors that predetermine criminal outcome amongst juveniles? Many questions, theories and researcher are generated in order to tackle an issue of this magnitude. The raw data that one uses to conceptualize may prevent a strong conviction when presenting this type of data amongst a broad spectrum. The intentions of ones study should solely focus on the prevention process rather than just presenting factual material to its audience. Stereotypes, pigeonholes and over-generalizations should be address. Misrepresentation amongst the minority group tends to produce a more compelling statistic. "Adult offenders often begin their criminal careers as children with little hope and little help" (Comey, 2005, p. 12) This research will try and find pre-indicators that will help solve the juvenile delinquency rate.
Juvenile delinquency is a problem these days, despite a recent drop in arrests. Roughly 2.5 million juveniles are arrested every year for different crimes in America. About 100,000 of those are violent crimes, however those statistics are slightly inaccurate since only half of juvenile crimes are reported (Juvenile Justice Basic Statistics, 2011). Creating interventions to assist at-risk youth means preventing them from starting on a path to crime is a priority. Juvenile justice system researchers and professionals must gain a better understanding of the contributing elements that cause delinquent behavior.
Studies and anecdotes have shown that our modern approach, however, is ill-equipped to reduce crime or deal with chronic delinquents while at the same time protecting their due liberties. We now stand on the precipice of decision: How can we strike an appropriate balance in the juvenile justice system? Should we even retain a separate system for children at all? The answers are usually difficult, sometimes subtle, but always possible to attain.