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Julius Caesar: The Fall Of The Roman Republic

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Throughout the course of the Roman Republic, there were major conspiracies, alliances, and power struggles, but no person was able to establish political dominance for life and carry on that power until Julius Caesar. Although there was an assortment of people seeking political dominance, the Republic was able to last for hundreds of years. When Julius Caesar entered Rome after the leader of the old government, who declared Caesar an enemy, retired, he became an orator. This position propelled him to a political career, and he continued to improve his position. After Caesar launched a Civil War with him crossing the Rubicon River, he successfully defeated his main rival, Pompey. As a result of his victory, Caesar became the dictator of the Roman Republic and held the position until his assassination. Caesar’s rule as dictator marks the start of the Roman Empire since he passed down his position to his nephew, Octavian, and he had many of the powers that an emperor would have later on in the Empire. Julius Caesar was the first person to permanently change the already corroded Roman Republic into an Empire.
Prior to the permanent change to an empire, the Roman government was a republic. Legends say that this republic was founded in 509 B.C.E after a group led by Lucius Junius Brutus overthrew Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome. This new system of Roman government comprised of three sections: the senate, the legislative assemblies, and the executive magistrates. The senate had the responsibilities of voting for pieces of legislation, controlling the treasury, and advising the magistrates. The legislative assemblies were composed of the citizens of the republic, but there were specific groups of people controlling certain asse...

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...ate and actually pitted Caesar against Pompey, who became the sole consul of the Roman republic since the government feared Caesar’s power after he was able to defeat many Gallic tribes in his conquest of Gaul. Pompey went on to lead the effort of demanding Caesar to disband his army because their terms in office ended. Pompey and the senate also would not allow Caesar to run for consul without being in Rome. Caesar feared going into Rome without his army because he thought that Pompey’s army would attack him, so Caesar requested that Pompey also part ways with his legions. After Pompey neglected to do so, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River into Italy; this technically meant declaring war on the government. The building of a rivalry between Pompey and Caesar would lead to Caesar’s Civil War in which the government would begin to change its fundamental form of rule.
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