Through his writing and research, Freud outlined that man was initially driven by his irrational impulses, specifically, his aggression. The aggression he was referring to pertained to man’s primitive instincts. Freud’s views and established philosophies shifted away from the previous Enlightenment ideologies of rationality of the mind. Freud’s ideas contradicted “the individual’s essential goodness and rationality” and sided with the notion that the human mind was driven by “irrati...
Freud, Sigmund. 1953-74. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works. 24 vols, trans. James Stachey. London: Hogarth.
Long regarded as the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) lives on today as an incredibly influential and powerful figure in the applied discipline of psychology. For Freud, it was his intense study of dialogue and interplay of involuntary human communication that ultimately led to his conclusions concerning the human unconscious. In contemporary studies, these conclusions have evolved into many of the distinguished, and more importantly controversial theories we associate with his name: the Oedipus complex; castration anxiety; penis envy; repetition compulsion; repression; etc. Much of the contention surrounding Freud is grounded in the belief that his works instituted notions that cannot be proven scientifically, such as personality development in infantile stages; sexuality in unconscious desire; and the unconscious drives behind human mannerism. Yet, despite the fact that many of Freud’s theories have not withstood the test of scientific scrutiny, few can argue against the fact that Freudianism is still impactful and has permeated other branches of modern theory. To prove this point, we can bring to attention the names of two modern theorists that have not only built upon Freud’s ideas in their work, but have consequently expanded his influence into other realms of literature, and other spheres of study. Harold Bloom (1930 – present) and Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) are only two notable thinkers that extend Freud’s ideas and have gained far-reaching influence in intellectual life. In response to this revival however, new opponents of Freud have found the opportunity to retaliate with their concerns and arguments. Nevertheless, the presentation of human identity and unconscious by Freud’s opponents and successors c...
In their book Homicide, evolutionary psychologists Margo Wilson and Martin Daly identify one such conflict between human nature and the contemporary cultural order. They argue that humans have an innate concept of justice which is based on the idea of personal revenge. According to this concept of justice, it is legitimate and even praise-worthy for people to whom a wrong has been done to avenge the wrong-doing themselves.
...so. But anyone who follows such precept in present-day civilization only puts himself at a disadvantage vis-à-vis the person who disregards it. What a potent obstacle to civilization aggressiveness must be, if the defense against it can cause as much unhappiness as aggressiveness itself!” (Freud, 146)
...re some people try to suppress their anger to be accepted by the society rather than curing it. We’ll have to admit that heredity does play an important role in shaping a person’s behavior. All human beings have the tendency to get aggressive and angry even if they haven’t been exposed to any violence in media or in their surroundings. At some point in their lives, all humans act aggressively regardless of how good their external environment is. On the other hand, external factors also play a pivotal role in determining how aggressive a person is. Therefore, we cannot say that there is only a single cause of aggression for all human beings; it varies from person to person. For some, aggression might be learnt, for others it may be innate. Whatever the cause might be, aggression should be properly channelized and cured so that this world becomes a better place to live in.
Freud, Sigmund, James Strachey, and Anna Freud. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth, 1955. Print.
In psychology there is much debate about the meaning of the term ‘aggression,’ as many different people have different views on how to define it, one definition comes from berkowitz 1993 and states aggression is ‘behaviour that is intended to injure someone physically or psychologically.’ Many explanations have been proposed for aggression and there is a split between the highly reductionist biological approach and the less reductionist social psychological approaches. Each of these explanations have proven extremely useful in answering certain questions surrounding aggression and helping us to gain more of an understanding of aggressive behaviour, however their limitations must also be acknowledged.
SLT describes the occurrence of aggression being due to observation and imitation (modelling). When a person observes aggressive behaviour, it is likely they will model their behaviour based on their observation especially if there is direct reinforcement, being rewarded for aggressive behaviour. This could be in the form of achieving the desired outcome or gaining social approval from being aggressive. Additionally, this theory poses that if an individual sees another person being rewarded for aggressive behaviours they will be more likely to imitate this behaviour. This is presented as especially the case if high character identification is present for the observer, then aggression is more likely to be displayed/imitated (Bandura, 1961, 1969; Konijn, Bijvank, & Bushman, 2007; Turner & Berkowitz,
If given the task of writing of describing themselves, very few people would put words like sadistic, psychotic and violent. Why then do ordinary people commit acts of extraordinary violence? This is the exact same question asked in the reading “Obey at Any Cost”, which is a detailed account of a study conducted by Yale’s Stanley Milgram. In his study Mr. Milgram wished to scientifically prove the relationship between authority and obedience. The impetus for this study, which was conducted in 1963, were the atrocities committed by humans around the globe, namely those in World War II. Milgram proposed that ordinary people, when confronted with the influence of an authoritative figure, would abandon their moral compass (Hock, 2013).