The power is held by those who are being ruled, and they have equal rights in deciding their political outcomes. Locke explains that “wherever law ends, tyranny begins”, so once the rights of the people are suppressed this injustice begins (Locke 102). Locke also explains that if a government was to act unjust, not with the best interest of the majority, then it is the right and the responsibility of the people to overthrow “tyranny” (Locke 102). The people, who have the power, should always defend their human rights, especially from unlawful rulers. This view of government shifts with Hobbes’ perspective.
James Madison and John C. Calhoun both came up with very similar solutions to this problem; however, both ideas create new problems with society as their ideas are based on the perfect society, rather than the actual society. John C. Calhoun suggests that since man is naturally a social being with strong individual impulses, then government is necessary to repel violence from abroad and repress violence and disorder from within the republic. Furthermore, a constitution is a necessity in order to ensure the ruler or the majority of the republic cannot oppress the citizens in the republic or abuse power. Calhoun proposes the two principle elements in the construction of the government must include suffrage and a concurrent majority in order to avoid abuse and oppression. The first principle is necessary in order to hold the rulers of the republic accountable to the people so that they cannot oppress the people because they are dependent on the people.
The definition of a just society can be described as a society with equality and solidarity where everyone is treated the way they deserve to be treated. The government today has control over the people to avoid chaos but tries their best to best serve its people. People in society deserve to be treated fairly based off their natural rights of being human. The Declaration of Independence states that the consent of the govern is applied to serve its citizens with the best laws and regulations to keep the people in a state of contempt and delectation. Governments are supposed to protect and give the people of a nation the rights and justice they deserve with the consent of the governed.
He argued that without the arrangement of a successful government human being’s would live in the “state of nature.” Locke and Hobbes also differ because Hobbes feels that the sovereign should be all-powerful and individuals should not rebel against the sovereign. By giving up a few of their freedoms the sovereign can maintain order with the rest of their freedoms. Locke, on the other hand, the government is for the people and if the government fails the people it/they can be overthrown and put in place new officials that will protect citizens
These differences affect the livelihood and happiness of people. Hobbes wanted a government to prevent chaos and anarchy as he saw all men were selfish after his experience with the Civil War, while Locke wanted a government to protect everyone’s natural rights. Hobbes Monarch with an absolute ruler, Is different than Locke’s idea of a constitutional government. Hobbes absolute ruler theory forced people to behave themselves, and protected them from killing each other, Locke’s constitutional theory protected their lives, their liberty, and their property. These are different because, while Locke agrees with protecting peoples lives such as Hobbes did, he also believed more than just lives should be protected.
Martin Luther King Jr. believes there are two specific types of laws: just and unjust. Just laws are ones in which humans must obey in order to maintain the safety, equality, and freedom of the individual. He states that “one has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws.” Justly, these laws benefit society and are intended to align with the moral conscience of the human being. On the other side “one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws” as, according to St. Augustine, "an unjust law is no law at all.” Unjust laws are simply a moral mistake in the governmental system that require being broken, whether that be through civil disobedience or simple negotiation to prompt the change. The way in which one determines
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke have authored two works that have had a significant impact on political philosophy. In the “Leviathan” by Hobbes and “Two Treatises of Government” by Locke, the primary focus was to analyze human nature to determine the most suitable type of government for humankind. They will have confounding results. Hobbes concluded that an unlimited sovereign is the only option, and would offer the most for the people, while for Locke such an idea was without merit. He believed that the government should be limited, ruling under the law, with divided powers, and with continued support from its citizens.
(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988) 248. ix[ix] Speirs and Sandberg, 97. Works Cited Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Views: Franz Kafka. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. Boa, Elizabeth.
Therefore all sovereigns are in a state of war with each other. If a citizen wishes peace he must defend the commonwealth "otherwise the institution of the commonwealth, which they have not the purpose to preserve was in vain" and he says they are all in the State of War. Hobbes also contributed to modern psychology and laid the foundations of modern sociology by applying mechanistic principles in an attempt to explain human motivation and social organization. Hobbes point of view on human nature and how a government should be run is a more realistic way of looking at things than Locke's theory. Hobbes and Locke both agreed that a social contrast was necessary to prevent anarchy and that certain individual s taking advantage of others natural right.
Society and the sovereign are reciprocally obliged towards each other, and they may only be content as long as both factions are appeased. A ruler should have enough power at his disposal so that he may be able to secure the people’s properties, rights, and ensure their protection, yet his power must be limited so that he may not use it arbitrarily and against the good and will of the people. Moreover, the legitimacy and authority of a ruler should come from his ability to govern society justly and protect the people’s properties and rights. This is exemplified by John Locke’s Two Treatises on Civil Government, in which he states, “The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property; and the [reason] they choose and authorize a legislature is that there may be laws made [...] as guards [...] to the properties of all, to limit the power [...] of every [...] member of the society.” If the ruler is unable or... ... middle of paper ... ...is powers must be restricted so that he may not use them arbitrarily and against the good of the people. A society and the ruler share responsibilities that depend inversely upon each other, and only when the ruler and his subjects are in agreement may the state prosper.