There is not enough emphasis on the biblical roots of our country. Religious knowledge is also necessary to teach about democracy. Schools are already allowed to teach democracy, how can anyone expect students to see everyone’s opinions if they didn’t learn all about the other religions and sides a person can be coming from? Experts also say that for american government to be taught and fully understood, then students need to fully know that it’s roots were religion. While religion is a very sensitive topic, other subjects such as politics and government are too, and yet those subjects are still discussed and taught in schools without a problem.
Ainsworth’s study “Strange Situation” showed that bonding between mother and infant has an effect on the infant’s behavior and development. How mother’s respond to their infant’s signals is major in the development of mother and infant relationships. Ainsworth study investigated how attachments might vary between children, the nature of attachment behaviors and styles of attachment. Ainsworth theory was to help prove validity to Bowlby’s attachment theory that infants who experienced a secure attachment “is likely to see attachment figures responsive, and helpful”. Ainsworth (1970) used experimental procedures in order to observe the variety of attachment forms exhibited between mothers and infants.
In conclusion, attachment in infants is concerned with how the infant’s closets relationship with its parents and caretakers develop. Although early processes are important, emotion goes on developing throughout the life-span. Infants who do not have any sort of attachment or close relationship with an adult do feel deprived however, research implies that it is possible to recover from the worst severed deprived childhoods, as far as they can experience help and warm relationships.
I too believed that it was truthful about how they considered the mothers could not have been fair in answering the Attachment Q-Set (AQS). Madigan, S., Moran, G., Schuengel, C., Pederson, D. R., & Otten, R. (2007). Unresolved maternal attachment representations, disrupted maternal behavior and disorganized attachment in infancy: Links to toddler behavior problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(10), 1042–1050. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01805.x In this study, researchers took sixty-four adolescent mothers and their infants to participate in a 24-month study.
Human infants bond as matter of instinct. The bonding process begins at birth with those initial bonds being strengthened through the nuturing and social learning processes. Physiologically, bonding with a parent is both a genetic factor and a process of neurological programming that results in a parent-child attachment. Genetic factors influence the way in which a child reacts to stressors in the environment or otherwise experiences the world. These genetic factors are demonstrated through the personality and behavioral patterns of the individual.
Bowlby proposed that attachment behaviour between a mother and child happens when certain behavioural systems are actuated in the infant as a consequence of its interaction with its environment, primarily with the interaction of its mother. By encompassing earlier theories of ethology, development psychology and psychoanalysis (Bretherton, 1992), Bowlby developed his theory on ‘Attachment’. This essay looks at the development of ‘Attachment Theory’ since its introduction over four decades ago and how the research of Ainsworth and Main significantly supports Bowlby’s thesis. It also looks at Mahler’s theory of ‘Separation-Individuation’ and the importance of how positive attachment is necessary for the advancement of autonomy and identity. Finally, it will explore the shift in paradigms from cognitive psychology to neuropsychology and look at how attachment communication between primary caregiver and infant influences the imprinting of the orbitofrontal cortex.
The relationship formed between a baby and their mother, and the baby and their father, is the first relationship of attachment a baby fosters as a new living being. The caregiving relationship is so important that studies have shown insecure attachments formed in early infancy may affect personal and social relationships throughout the infant’s entire life. Secure attachment promotes trust and confidence in other people (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2013). Insecure attachments formed in infancy may result in low quality relationships, and impaired social development. Mary Ainsworth discovered the four types of attachment by studying how an infant reacts to the separation, and union of their mother, in a procedure called the Strange Situation (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2013).
In the article of 1958, Bowlby refers to the term attachment primarily as the "specific relationship between mother and child" and as a "particular pattern of behaviour demonstrated by the child to indicate an attachment". Bowlby began research on attachment mother-child beside his observations of child behaviour as a volunteer at a facility for maladjusted children, with stories of deprivation and institutionalization. In 1951, the Bowlby presented a report to the Maternal Care and Mental Health in which it is define the relationship between adequate maternal care and mental health of the child. Throughout his time, Bowlby distanced himself from orthodox psychoanalytic theory: he gave importance to the real experiences of the child; also,
John Bowlby’s attachment theory established that an infant’s earliest relationship with their primary caregiver or mother shaped their later development and characterized their human life, “from the cradle to the grave” (Bowlby, 1979, p. 129). The attachment style that an infant develops with their parent later reflects on their self-esteem, well-being and the romantic relationships that they form. Bowlby’s attachment theory had extensive research done by Mary Ainsworth, who studied the mother-infant interactions specifically regarding the theme of an infant’s exploration of their surrounding and the separation from their mother in an experiment called the strange situation. Ainsworth defined the four attachment styles: secure, insecure/resistant, insecure/avoidant and disorganized/disoriented, later leading to research studies done to observe this behavior and how it affects a child in their adolescence and adulthood. The attachment style that a child endures with their mother initially begins before the child is even born.
There are mainly 4 phases. In the first phase, infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures such as siblings, parents, and strangers equally. In the second phase, attachment slowly becomes more focused on one figure, which is usually the primary caregiver. In the third phase, the infant develops specific attachments and actively seek contact with regular caregivers. Lastly, after two-years of age, the child starts to take into account of others’ feelings, goals and plans as they become more conscious when forming their own actions (Santrock,