Johannes Gutenberg Essay

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1. Johannes Gutenberg (1395-1468) was a German inventor. Born to a patrician in Mainz, little is known about him other than that he acquired skill in metalworking. He also worked with others in partnerships, but they eventually became suspicious as they were never told of his actual work. He created the printing press using movable type. This allowed for the rapid printing of bibles and the spread of different ideas. This also led to increased literacy. Gutenberg was one of the most influential and important people in the development of Europe in the 1400’s because of his invention of the printing press. The printing press was crucial to the development of Europe. It allowed for increased communication all across Europe. Also, it gave more chances for people to read. Higher availability of books led to more education and literacy for more people. 2. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was a powerful German dictator who started World War II, killed millions of innocent people, and destroyed countless works of art and historical artifacts. In World War II alone, it is said that over fifty million civilians and troops died. Hitler singled out racial minorities and the Jewish population to be exterminated. Most of the nonmilitary deaths were a result of his death camps and labor camps. The war damage cost trillions of dollars which also left governments in shambles if it did not completely erase them. The war left countless cities in ruins from bombings which also destroyed countless pieces of art and historical documents. Western and Central Europe were tremendously weakened. The Soviet Union and America were left with a majority of the world power which led to the Cold War, ultimately dividing Europe in half, which led to divisions among th... ... middle of paper ... ...i revolutionized the Baroque era with his unique sculpting style. His implemented the use of indentation, shadowing, muscularity and emotion as points of emphasis for new Baroque sculptures. In his work for Cardinal Borghese, Bernini sculpted the famous Pluto and Proserpina which is often cited as his finest example of indentation and emotion as he captures the the moment of Hades picking up Persephone to take her back to the Underworld to be his queen. Along with his countless sculptures, he designed many focal points and plazas in Italy including St. Peter’s Square and his Fountain of Four Rivers in the Piazza Navona. Bernini also designed many tombs and architecture in St. Peter’s with his Tomb of Pope Urban VIII, the Baldacchino and the Tomb of Pope Alexander VII. Through his architecture, he made St. Peter’s Basilica the focal point of the Catholic Church.
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