In order for a woman to consider her case of breast cancer to be hereditary, she must contain either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation in her genetic make up. Hundreds of mutations have been found in both genes and almost all of the mutations identified are primitive mutations found in only a single family. Most of the mutations result in a miss-formed protein product; thus the nature of these mutations is easily interpreted. Two successive acquired mutations occurring in a single cell are necessary for the development of cancer. Mutations anywhere along either gene are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. (Transmed Network-Breast Cancer-Characteristics of Hereditary Breast Cancer, 1997).
A National Cancer Institute (NCI) report estimates that about 1 in 8 women in the United States (approximately 13.3 percent) will develop breast cancer during her lifetime. This estimate is based on cancer rates from 1997 through 1999, as reported in NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program publication SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1973–1999. This publication presents estimates of the risk of developing breast cancer in 10-, 20-, and 30-year intervals. Each age interval is assigned a weight in the calculations based on the proportion of the population living to that age.
In the United States, starting from the first breast cancer case in 1930s to today, a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer increases to one eighth (Gray et al.). Continuously increasing breast cancer rate has caused a lot of concerns among not only ordinary people but also scientists. For decades, scientists have been working on the causes of breast cancer in order to find the corresponding methods of treatment. However, only about 25% of the breast cancer cases got explained (Brody et al.); till today, heredity, lifetime exposure to environmental estrogen (the female sex hormone), and the dietary fat are the only major known causes (“Cover Story: Breast Cancer and Environment”). For the 75% unexplained breast cancers cases, scientists, through various of researches, have come up with several hypothetical breast cancer causes, in which synthetic chemicals and environmental radiations are the major ones.
Breast Cancer is a tumor that starts in the cell of the breast. Breast cancer can be seen in both men and women, mainly in women. As I started doing the research on breast cancer I decide to basic my topic around African American women (AAW) and breast cancer. Breast cancer affects African American women more, because of their lifestyle, age, and weight. My paper will talk about the side effects, symptoms, different tests, and treatment. I will include what I learn about the African American women having the worst breast cancer mortality, the risk of aggressive breast cancer and that it’s three times higher for African American. It was a new study that said that the ancestry linked to a triple negative breast cancer. This is a type of breast cancer that is more aggressive and has few treatments. Things that African American women need to know are that secondary breast cancer is seen more in African American women regardless of the age. Secondary breast cancer will be seen in the opposite breast; usually 4 percent that was diagnosing with breast cancer will have secondary breast cancer to be seen. African American women had a higher risk for disease recurrence and inferior survival compared with women of other races. It is not fully understood why breast cancer affect the different racial groups, and ethnicity. These are some of the breast cancer risk factors: including reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, menstrual history, hormone use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, height, and body mass. There been studies on this different risk factor that have some affect on breast cancer in women.
Rebbeck T.R. et al.(2004). Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 22,1055-1062.
The one question that needs to be asked by women is “how can I reduce my risk of getting breast cancer?” because all women are at risk. It is very important that all women know how to lessen their chances of getting breast cancer because women are most vulnerable of developing the illness. It is estimated that over “192,370 women will be diagnosed with and 40,170 women will die” of breast cancer in the year 2009; both the number of diagnoses and deaths can be cut in half if women try to lower their risk of breast cancer (seer.cancer.org). If women do not do something for themselves before developing breast cancer, doctors will not be able to do much to keep them alive after they do develop breast cancer if it spreads. However, by actually doing the things that help lower the risk of breast cancer there is no guarantee that breast cancer will never develop, it will delay its development and perhaps that could lead to a woman to not getting breast cancer through all her life, but the chance of getting breast cancer will always be there. Every woman in the world should lower their risk of breast cancer by breastfeeding, if possible, by exercising regularly, by having a nutritious and well balanced diet and by going to a doctor for routine check ups because it can safe their life.
It is the second leading cause of death in the United States, killing thousands of people each year. Cancer has certainly become a growing epidemic in our society, and breast cancer is one of its most prevalent forms. One in nine women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime, making it the most common form of cancer in women, and for many of them, this will mark the end of their life. This plague clearly needs to be taken under control, and organizations like the National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations (NABCO) intend to do just that.
Demographics influence so much of human beings capabilities. They can be a deterrent at times but in certain cases, can be seen as more of an advantage. In some cases altogether, the demographics of age, gender, and ethnicity have no influence at all. The question being addressed is if one’s age, ethnicity, or gender has an influence on individuals being diagnosed with breast cancer. However, it may also be possible that there is no correlation between these specific demographics and the diagnosis of breast cancer. Female breast cancer is most common in middle-aged and older women (NCI Breast, 2014). The number of new cases of breast cancer was 123.8 per 100,000 women per year (NCI Breast, 2014). Being able to spot cancer in its earliest form is part of the diagnosing process (NCI Breast, 2014). This aids people in preventing the deadliest lifetime risk. Lifetime risk is the probability of developing or dying from a disease in the course of one's lifespan (NCI Breast, 2014). Based on the most recent data, approximately 12.3 percent of women will be diagnosed with breast cancer at some point during their lifetime (NCI Breast, 2014). Cancer stage at diagnosis, which refers to extent of a cancer in the body, determines treatment options and has a strong influence on the length of survival (NCI Breast, 2014). In general, if the cancer is found only in the part of the body where it started it is localized (sometimes referred to as stage 1) (NCI Breast, 2014). If it has spread to a different part of the body, the stage is regional or distant. The earlier breast cancer is caught, the better chance a person has of surviving five years after being diagnosed (NCI Breast, 2014). For breast cancer, 60.5% are di...
Welcsh, P., & King, M. (n.d.). Human Molecular Genetics. BRCA1 and BRCA2 and the genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://hmg.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/7/705.full
There is a lot of information that has to be known about breast cancer in order to do something about the disease such as what breast cancer is, the history and some risk factors.Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that starts from cells of the breast. Breast cancer is found mostly in women, but men can get breast cancer. Being a women and getting older, put women at higher risk of getting diagnosed with breast cancer. As women get older their risk continues. Many factors that contribute to the risk of breast cancer, such as the history of breast cancer in your family, or close relatives. “Researchers are investigating genes that may be related to breast cancer, and they are examining whether smoking or estrogen levels influence that incidence of the disease” (N.W hospital 1). However, some women who have one or more risk factors may not get diagnosed with breast cancer, but most women who don’t have any risk factors get diagnosed with the disease.