Jim Crow laws were laws created to strengthen racism and segregation. It was a white person’s desperate attempt to maintain a sort of superiority over black people. Nowadays it might seem impossible for laws promoting racism and segregation to exist, but they do. Concealed by inconspicuous phrasing there are still laws to this day that allow blacks and other minorities to be taken advantage of solely based on their race. The book written by Michelle Alexander titled The New Jim Crow outlines the major problems associated with the American judicial system, mainly the War on Drugs. Alexander brings to light many issues that primarily affect blacks and other minorities from this she derives that America has a new set of Jim Crow Laws. Given the
Alexander attempts to show by means of cultural and historical review, political decisions, enactment of legislation and statistical evidence from the time of the old Jim Crow laws, the retarded advancement of civil rights of young black men, and their mass incarceration. This occurrence produces a false reality and perpetuates the history of racial discrimination that exists today in America through a "caste system" by legal framework that disguising itself as the "War on Drugs." The practice of mass incarceration labels and demonizes those persons to the point that they lose their rights to vote, limits employment, are denied housing and educatio...
The methodically use of discriminating against and segregating Black people, particularly as practiced in the South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid-20th century. Jim Crow is a name given to a group of laws to keep Blacks and Whites separate after the American Civil War. Lynching was the method of execution during Jim Crow era; it is now similar to death a penalty.
The Jim Crow laws were established and came about in the beginning of the 1880s and these laws were created to legalize segregation between African American and Caucasians. This book the New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness explains the mass incarceration of African Americans in the war on drugs. The text explains how it is said that most drug dealers are said to be black or brown, and that the War on Drugs is a racist conspiracy to put “blacks” back in their place. The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world largely due to the war on drugs. The war on drugs came about during the late 1980s and it was said to target African Americans. This is one of the most important root causes in the increase
The targets of the drug war are certain racial groups just because they are of color, they are targets because the law enforcements have bias opinions about the people of color rather than those who are white.The people of color and whites are both as likely to use and sell drugs, but the people of color have a bigger probability to get arrested, searched, prosecuted, convicted or sent to jail for the violation of drug laws. The drug war isn't only about people of color, it is about every races including white. The enforcement does not look for the increasing of drug activity because But the law enforcement doesn’t focus on the high income neighborhoods in search for drugs, what they do is focus on the poor low income neighborhoods because that is where they think drugs are being abused. The drug policies are very discriminatory and attack those that are non white, or those who live in a neighborhood where everyone thinks drugs are abused there. According to the article “Race, Drugs, and Law Enforcement in the United States” it uses statistics from seattle that shows a clear example of the discrimination of the supposed war on drugs.“A recent study in Seattle is illustrative. Although the majority of those who shared, sold, or transferred serious drugsin Seattle are white (indeed seventy percent of the general Seattle population is white), almost two-thirds (64.2%) of drug arrestees are black”(hrw.org 1). This quote shows what a study found in seattle, that the population in seattle is seventy percent but most of the people in jail are blacks. Seattle has a problem where cocaine and crack are the main drug being abused and sold, but the people who sell it the most is whites but the majority who end up in jail for cocaine or crack charges are african americans. Well this happens because black people do drugs but also white people, but the ones who are the victims of incarceration are
One policy one could examine to see its implications on incarceration rates in the United States is the “War on Drugs.” This war has taken place since the Nixon administration in the 1970s, and aims to eliminate the possession, importation, and solicitation of illegal substances. This war has multiple fronts in which people are currently fighting, but the domestic theatre of war is a culprit for this rise of incarceration rates. Bobo and Thompson examined this phenomenon and found, “rapid increase in incarceration rates can be traced to the "War on Drugs" and associated sentencing practices” (451). The “War on Drugs” can be seen taking place in predominately urban impoverished African-American communities. As a result, more African-Americans are being arrested for drug crimes, whether they be petty possession misdemeanor crimes or more serious felony solicitation of illegal substance crimes. Further, since these areas are more impoverished, individuals will look for other ways in order to generate income in order to support themselves and their
In this book The New Jim Crow Michelle Alexander gives a look at history racism of African-Americans in relations to slavery and brings us to into modern day racism. Not racism as a form of calling people names or by the means of segregation which would be considered overt racism condemned by society but by colorblindness and by a racial caste system. Alexander argues African-Americans are being discriminated against in the form of mass incarceration. “Mass incarceration refers not only to the criminal justice system but also to the larger web of laws, rules, polices, and customs that control those labeled criminals both in and out of prison” (Alexander 2012, pg 14). Upon reading The New Jim Crow I believe African – Americans continue to be discriminated against in silent ways that are deemed acceptable by society and the criminal justice system.
In the past, the Jim Crow laws were laws in the Southern United States that enforced segregation. It was supposed to be a “separate but equal” status for Blacks and Whites. However, the conditions for Black Americans were consistently underfunded and substandard as compared to the conditions for White Americans. Michelle Alexander calls the War on Drugs “The New Jim Crow” because there are flaws in the criminal justice system that target black men more than white men. This War on Drugs targets black men in many ways including in the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, more serious punishments were implemented for crack distribution (associated more with Black people) than pure cocaine (associated more commonly with upper class White people). Civil penalties as well, like not being able to live in public housing or get student loans, accompany the harsh prison sentences. Michelle Alexander writes of the effects of mass incarceration on Black Americans in the United States. Michelle Alexander explains that the Jim Crow laws from before are functionally equivalent to todays mass incarceration practices. There is a racial disproportion impact of the War on Drugs, which drove the increase of incarceration rates. Then, after incarceration, there are harsh effects on the rights of Black Americans including voting rights, serving on juries, the rights to receive
To be honest, if a police officer or any law enforcement used the tactics used in the inner cities against minorities in a white middle class neighborhood would be fired. The war on drugs is another tool to enslave African American and ensured their continued oppression writes Deborah Small the author of the article “The War on drugs Promotes Racism”. She continues saying that drug laws are enforced in a way that is racially biased in midst stating that blacks make up thirteen percent of drug users, seventy four percent of drug users sent to prison are people of color. She also claims that sentences for using or possessing crack cocaine-typically used by blacks- are hundred percent more harsh than than those using powdered cocaine, most commonly used by whites. It is relevant to understand the current prison-industrial complex to know that slavery held a preeminent position in America’s colonial society. With nearly 2 million people behind bars, it is undisputed to that today the principal engine driving the criminal justice system and the high rates of incarcerations is the United States government’s relentless and racist pursuit of the “War on Drugs.” The drug war has replaced slavery and segregation as the main method of maintaining America’s long history of racial oppression. She then presents a metaphor explaining how today's criminal justice system is like a pipeline of a slave ship, transporting human cargo along the trade routes from black and brown communities; through the middle passage of the police precincts, holding pens, detention centers and courtrooms; to downstate and upstate prisons; back to communities as unrehabilitated escapees, and back to prison cells in a vicious cycle. All in the stance of preventing drugs from the streets. If the government wants to combat drugs they should educate the youth not imprisoned them for almost their whole life. As I
One of the main four people in Nixon's drug policy Attorney General John Mitchell allegedly admitted years later that the War on Drugs was made to target hippies and Blacks (Schou). Katherine Fornili an Assistant Professor for the University of Maryland School of Nursing-Baltimore highlights the racial divide among the black drug offenders saying, " there is no evidence that rates of drug use and distribution vary significantly by race… only 14% of regular drug users are Black, but Blacks constitute almost 34% of drug-related arrests and almost half of drug-related convictions and state prison sentences… the incarceration rate for a Black male is 6.5 times higher than for White male. This shows the great divide that has been brought upon in the United States why are we targeting minority communities and only hurting our own