Hunter begins her analysis by integrating the experiences of African-American women workers into the broader examination of political and economic conditions in the New South. According to Hunter, the period between 1877 and 1915 is critical to understanding the social transformations in most southern cities and complicating this transformation are the issues of race, class, and gender. The examination of the lives of black domestic workers reveals the complexity of their struggles to keep their autonomy with white employers and city officials. For example, African-American women built institutions and frequently quit their jobs in response to the attempts by southern whites to control their labor and mobility. Hunter carefully situates these individual tactics of resistance in the New South capitalist development and attempts by whites to curtail the political and social freedoms of emancipated slaves.
William Graebner and Leonard Richards. The American Record: Images of our Nation’s Past. McGraw-Hilll; 5 edition. May 27, 2005
Throughout the first half of the 19th century, and especially after the War of 1812, America has taken on yet another revolution. In this time period, the country saw a rapid expansion in territory and economics, as well as the extension of democratic politics; the spread of evangelical revivalism; the rise of the nation’s first labor and reform movements; the growth of cities and industrial ways of life; a rise in abolitionism and reduction in the power of slavery; and radical shifts in the roles and status of women.
Ch. 15: This chapter covers events from 1865-1877, known as reconstruction; when major changes in the sociological and economical standards occurred. The constitution was redefined as to the limitations of freedom. Equality was a forefront of the national agenda; however, during this time many lines were blurred and shaded. Many conflicts occurred due to the changes to come. Certain stigmas and social complexes remained, some blacks seized property, and black codes were established to minimize their social standing. Black codes restricted the rights of black people, essentially hindering their social position; the government fined vagrants and forced them to work. Black codes were a government promoted version of slavery; allowing forms of corporal punishment, also making it illegal not have employment.
The complexities of race effected the Jacksonian era through the shrewdness of the white man’s desires for economic expansion. Democracy, during its infancy in early nineteenth century America, considered all ‘people’ as equals. However, this designation of ‘people’ excluded African and Native Americans. The institution of slavery was a return investment venture for southern planters in their greed for the production of more staple crops. Many white Americans led extravagant lifestyles from the large incomes they received from the labors of their property. Also, the controversy over removing the Native American’s from their lands portrayed the voracity in which the European Americans afflicted upon the native civilizations during the antebellum United States. The Indian Removal Act and Slavery, together with all its conflicts, led to vile racial relations in the Jacksonian period and can still be seen in the twenty first century. The foregoing controversial events had a direct correlation to the economic development of the United States and led the intrinsic altruism inherent in democracies to a history set by inequalities of race.
As written in Literature and it's Times, a distinct place where racism and prejudice took place was the South. In the early 1900's, the South remained mostly rural and agricultural in economy. Poverty was everywhere, and sharecropping had replaced slavery as the main source of black labor. Blacks who remained in the South received the burdens of poverty and discrimination. The women faced sexual and racial oppression, making th...
Beginning in the 1800’s, the face of America was changing. As the Industrial Revolution took a firm hold here and around the world, the everyday life of common Americans was affected in almost unimaginable ways. Between 1885 and 1945, a sweeping change was taking place throughout the world. Large scale mechanization as well as new modern modes of transportation and communication changed the way people looked at the world (Rowland, 1997, p. 14). As thousands of new jobs were created, a large scale urban migration began. People were leaving the far...
Displacement and dispossession have been part of United States history since the birth of the nation. After the Native Americans were thought to have souls, they were no longer physically exterminated, but rather culturally exterminated (Smith 37). The land of the natives was taken and they were reduced to small and inadequate reservations. Native Americans were forced to attend boarding schools and were culturally dispossessed, women especially faced challenges because they faced discrimination based on their gender as well as their ethnicity, we continue to see similar dispossession in modern day society. Andrea Smith’s writing about the struggle of Native Americans in the boarding school system and Gloria Anzaldua’s mestiza consciousness demonstrate the dispossession of non-white people in the United States.
Mankind has struggled, since the beginning of civilization, to see beyond race and cultural differences when defining human value and dignity. The ideas of slavery, oppression, and genocide have all been cultivated by ignorance and the degradation of misunderstood people by a powerful majority that claim to be assimilating the minority. Both Charles Eastman and Gertrude Bonnin give a powerful depiction of Native Americans as they come to understand their place in the new world and desperately cling to traditions and a culture that give them their dignity. Both autobiographies attempt to educate white readers about misconceptions and prejudices that they have been exposed to about Native Americans. These prejudices have caused a majority of white America to fear and dehumanize the Indian populace to the point of oppression. Through their storytelling, Eastman and Bonnin give a perspective of Native American culture that is relatable and real. These writings bring a sense of human dignity to Native Americans and dispel the idea that “Indians” are a savage people who are unintelligent, heathenistic, and in need of guidance by the white man.
The reforming time period from 1775 to 1830 was full of changes. However, the “peculiar institution” and its changes was one of the most noteworthy. These years brought an increase in enslaved African Americans, but surprisingly, also freed ones. In this essay, both the unfortunate and fortunate groups of these people will be our focal point.
Some children drink from bottles propped on pillow; some rock in place; most just sit and stare. The walls are bare and white…there are no toys and few visitors and little physical contact. One person cares for 30 children, her time filled with keeping them clean and fed…these children may be clean and fed, but they are suffering from severe social deprivation. Overwhelmed by the stress of their deprivation, their brains and hearts slowly waste away. (p.
What the average human being lived in was a tenement. “A tenement is a Small, Crowded, Unsanitary, apartment” (Document 6). A large amount of people shared a tenement with other families that led to it being crowded and unsanitary. The tenements were a hard place to live in, the bathroom was shared by oodles of families and how it was built was unconvincing. Also people who couldn’t afford a tenement lived in the poorhouse.“Where do you live now? In the poorhouse” (Document 7). Since there was little pay not all people could afford a tenement. The poor house was abominable if anything tenements were safer. Nearly all the living conditions were not safe like most things in the industrial revolution; the industrial revolution was not a helpful situation.
Over the past few years the white working class has become docile in means of what Sara Palin describes as “Real America”, a thriving class of individuals who pride themselves on worth ethic. However, the article takes the more known impression of this group of Americans by providing the historical upbringing of the “white trash” as it first appeared in print in 1821; similarly, to how Outing Whiteness,
In the early 1900’s, America was a place of racial division and inequality. The early