The beginning of time has always played a major role in history. The beginning of time explains the reasons for each and every creature, plant, and unexplainable phenomena that have occurred on this earth. Chapter one of World History: A Topical Approach primarily explains to the reader the different arguments that people believe are true. There are many claims that scientist have found to be very true, but then there are others who believe in a phenomenon quite different. Some scientists date the beginning of existence as far as twenty billion years ago, but there are others who believe that the world is really not that old.
Darwin is considered by other people as the creator of Evolution. Darwin was not the only man to arrive at the theory of evolution. Darwin came to his theory of evolution at the same time as an another man who goes by the name of Alfred Russell Wallace came to the same conclusion. Wallace being relatively unknown was not respected for having the same conclusion because the fact that people were so apt to listen to the theory’s of Charles Darwin. After time Darwin published a book On the Origin of Species, and it was a big success: it’s first printing sold out immediately and a second printing sold out a month later.
The Enlightenment period was a culture movement where philosophers, historians, theologians, and scientist alike began to redefine society. Isaac Newton, prominent for his scientific research, set up the framework for this period as nearly every scientific discovery followed his principles. So what had begun by the likes of scientists Newton and Galileo during the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, gave way to the popularization of science by the 18th century. By the mid-18th century, Franklin, with the help of philosophy, pushed the envelope further than any professional during this period; he challenged widely held beliefs, including his own, by applying the scientific method and employed skepticism. For this reason, science influenced people across various fields to vet their knowledge on the natural world.
Charles Darwin changed this though, when he studied and published his book, “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races,” on his explanation of evolution through natural selection. After Darwin, many scholars followed in his footsteps to explain further theories. As technology advanced, there were more explanations for the concept of evolution followed by evidence and data because of the technology available to us. Without Darwin and technology, evolution would not be at the understanding that it is today. Charles Darwin came up with the theory of natural selection that caught the public’s attention due to its opposing ideas from other scientists of his generation.
After reviewing Kuhn’s idea of science, Darwin appears to play a substantial role in the paradigm shift from the science of old to new. Kuhn looked at Darwin and saw science evolve much as Darwin’s organisms appeared to evolve Many scientists seemed to play a small role in Kuhn’s paradigm. Newton believed that science could answer questions accurately, if not “nearly” truthfully. Newton still sought the truth, but acknowledged that one scientist could not solve all of the problems of the world, and thus would solve what he could and leave the harder stuff for people of the future. Newton also believed scientists should focus on observable physical matters that they could answer, rather than philosophical ideas that could not be solved.
While Cesare Lombroso was the first to apply positivism to criminology, it was made possible by the efforts of Auguste Comte, who was the first person to suggest trying to solve problems using scientific reasoning (Adler et al 2012). Also the work of Charles Darwin was able to make society more receptive to the idea of science being an acceptable way to answer questions and solve problems in society. Those three men were able to make criminology a more legitimate and respected field. Works Cited Adler, Freda, Gerhard O. W. Mueller, and William S. Laufer. Criminology.
The Scientific Revolution was well underway before Darwin was even born, but it was his studies which allowed us to conclude that "the world is governed entirely by natural forces, including the struggle for existence in which the fittest members of a varying population survive, reproduce, and pass on their traits to the next generation. "1 The impact that Darwin made in the science field was great since his ideas and theories formed a foundation that today's scientists constantly build on. Darwins's "Origin of Species" was widly disputed. When he studied the root of humans, his conclusions went against the original widespread beliefs that God had created man. He claimed that the human origin actually evolved from an ancestor.
The grandfather Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) was a well renowned doctor, poet and philosopher who wrote many books concerning nature. He said that all different living things were produced over millions of years by one original ancient parent, such that each offspring had a natural tendency to improve itself (Karp, 1968, p.14). However, fossil records show that this theory of one original parent was not probable (Karp, 1968, p.14). His opposition toward any form of organized religion and his rejection of Christianity was considered to be superficial and eccentric (Chancellor, 1973, p.21). His tendency to theorize and create wild speculations without testing his theories caused his reputation as a scientist to suffer.
This type of thinking in his times was extremely radical and unheard of, but throughout the years evolution has been explored further and accepted by most scientists. Further research into the origin of man proved that genes were the maps by which humans change. In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins states ".
. . Darwin's theories shocked most people of his day, who believed that each species had been created by a separate divine act. His book, which is usually called simply The Origin of Species presented facts that disputed this belief. It caused a revolution in biological science and greatly affected religious thought."