The Influence and Role of Current U.S. Foreign Policy in Modern Italy Since the beginning of the European Union, Europe has attempted to move forward as one unit in order to compete with the United States and to be a strong force around the globe. In a statement made by the Washington ambassadors of the present and acceding members to the European Union in May 2004, they stated, Europe now, for the first time in modern history, is a partnership sharing common values and a commitment to harmony and cooperation. The dream of European integration, shared by the United States, is now being realized, leaving behind us the wasteful era of wars, hostility, and inequalities. We are on the road to a Europe enjoying a unity and influence without precedent in its long history. (http://www.italyemb.org/JointEditorial.htm).
This study will help shed light on whether the hypothesis of a European unity was a premature dream (Bracalini, 1995) propelled by the breakthrough of technology and racial supremacy theories (Salmi 2008), or a practical means to benefit the political and economical situation, improving the trade flows and the circulation of people. I use Italy and Spain as the core of my investigation, since they both belong to the geographical south of Europe: a region that was... ... middle of paper ... ...chapter will follow the methodology of the former chapter, focusing on the Italian texts; in the fourth chapter I will engage a comparison between the literary works in the two countries, trying to determine and point out whether the 19th century intellectuals were successful in influencing their political and cultural environment. In the year 2019 I am planning to defend my dissertation. I am currently in my second year of the Phd program and I am working on my dissertation under the supervision of Professor María Soledad Fernández Utrera. At the end of my Doctorate, the literary works I will deal with will provide me with a broad view of the political, social and cultural conditions of the continent.
Facist Italy by John Whittam In the book “Fascist Italy”, author John Whittam gives an in-depth analysis of the biggest mass movement in Italian history, and the world for that matter. Fascism was a major political movement that has left resounding effects on the history of Italy. Benito Mussolini was one of Italy’s greatest leaders, and was the leader of the first national movement called Fascism. The Fascist movement was quite complex and many components were involved. Fascism was able to capitalize on Italians who saw themselves as nationalists with a strong sense of Italian pride.
Machiavelli lived in Florence, Italy, at this time politically organized by city states. Machiavelli wanted to free Italy from foreign rule. As well as, unite and strengthen the Italian city states. Today we know Machiavelli as, “one of the founders of philosophy of history and one of the first to create a political science based on the studying of historical actions.”(Dr. Mike). Machiavelli is chief interest of his “professional life was foreign policy, and… the subject bulks large in The Prince.”(Adams).
The same type of league linking towns in Italy can be found in medieval times. (Woodard) Later, "The United States made the key breakthrough. The states originally formed a loose relationship with weak central government (the Confederation). They replaced this system with a new constitution in 1789 creating the modern United States and defining federalism in its current sense" (Woodard). In doing so, it began a global discussion of the use of federalism to hold regions, and in particular colonies, together.
However soon it was exposed that Mazzini was affiliated with them, and so he was forced to flee to France. This turned out to be a blessing in disguise, because he inspired one of the biggest movements in the process of unification, La Giovane Italia from his apartment in Marseille. La Giovane Italia, (or Young Italy), was a brotherhood of Italians who strongly believed in progress and duty, with the goal of eventual Italian Unification.2 . At a time when many, including the Austrian minister Metternich said that “Italy is merely a geographical expression” due to the Italian peninsula being politically constituted of a patchwork of historically established aristocratic and clerical states. La Giovane Italia tot... ... middle of paper ... ...public pg.
This was due to the fact of the strong army of the Austrian General Radetsky. As a result, Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by Victor Emmanuel II, who played a greater role in the final and successful Unification of Italy in 1870. The development of Nationalism from 1830 to 1848 can be considered as the period where the core ideas of the Unification of Italy truly sprang. Driven by the ambition of Mazzini, to the influences of writers and philosophers, further to the application through media, economy, and religion, all led to the strengthening of nationalism throughout many areas in Italy. Even though their first official attempt to suppress the Austrians and establish a unification had failed in the Revolutions of 1848, it had delivered an even stronger desire for a unified Italy and had proved that unity among the states was possible.
Social Life in Medieval and Early Modern Italy Nicolo Macchiavelli and The Prince At the end of the 14th century, Italy was still politically organized by city-states. Emerging as one of the most influential writers of the Renaissance, Niccolo Machiavelli was a political analyst, whose aim was to free italy from foreign rule, as well as to unite and strengthen the Italian city states. Machiavelli believed Italy could not be united unless its leader was ruthless. In 1513, he wrote his best-known work, The Prince, in which he describes the ways that a prince may gain and maintain his power. Machiavellie advises his rulers to be kind only of it suited their purposes.
Both the Italian and Northern Renaissance were influenced by their encouragement to surpass the negativity and darkness of the middle ages. Boundaries were nonexistent when it came to business and trade, ultimately leading to a cross-cultural environment. Not only did Europe advance in a socioeconomic aspect but in religion, literature, art and politics. There are many similarities between costumes in Italy and Northern Europe because of the flow of ideas, which traveled through the trade route. Also, the newfound importance of learn from antiquity was, started by the Italians, helped form Europe as we know it today.
By the year 1861, a unified Italy was... ... middle of paper ... ...e the beginning of its unification, Italy has battled with the differences of the north and south. It will take a long time to achieve economic stability in the south, but one that must be reached in order to increase the economic growth for the whole country. With its strong nationalistic views, Italy is well on its way to achieving its goals. Works Cited CIA-World Factbook-Italy. 2001. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/it.html (26 Nov. 2001).