Culture, according to Webster’s is, “the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization” defines culture. The world has many diverse cultures spread out through many different countries. The country of Italy has had an impact on the world through its unique geography, culture and history. Italian culture and influences on world economies can be seen everywhere from food to cars and clothes. The impact that Italy has had on the rest of the world is profound than you may think.
Individualism outlines the link between the ‘individual and the collectivity which prevails in a given society’ (Hofstede, 1980: 213). The main distinction amongst individualism and collectivism is the way that people of various cultures classify themselves (Di Cesare and Sadri, 2002). They recognize themselves as either an individual or a member of a group. Individualism is the extent in which societies look after themselves and their immediate family while in collectivist societies, individuals belong to groups that tend to them in exchange for wholehearted allegiance (Torrington, 1994; Hofstede, 2015). Individualist actions are motivated by their own attitudes and customs, while collectivists are focused by collective norms (Kulkarni et al, 2010). Also, individualists are more focused toward undertaking a personal task, while collectivists are driven more in the direction of achieving balanced relationships (Kulkarni et al, 2010). In certain societies, being an individualist is seen as an advantage while in other societies it can be viewed as isolating. The amount of individualism or collectivism in a particular society will influence the essence of the relationship among the individual and the organization they belong (Hofstede, 1980). From the viewpoint of the organization, individuality can be looked at as the worker’s independence in distinction to the organization. The level of
It is human nature to see those who are different and group them into distinct categories. The distinction of Individualism versus Collectivism is one that is currently being studied extensively. On one side, individualism sees individuals as the fundamental unit of a society. Individuals are supposed to be unique, independent, and most importantly, willing to put their own interests above all others. On the other hand, collectivism views the basic building block of society as social groups, stressing the interpersonal bonds between people. Collectivist values dictate that group goals and values have higher precedence than an individual’s. Due to the seemingly polar opposite nature of these ideologies, it is inevitable that they will be compared to see which is more beneficial to the country and its people. Some might point to the success of the US, an extremely individualistic country, in support of individualistic values. They will point to the freedom of choice and diversity that individualism boasts of. Others stress the flaws of the US in response, and while both sides do have their truths, the costs that come with individualistic values are too great to be ignored. Highly individualistic attitudes have caused many large scale problems which have long been identified as difficult to resolve issues. These problems include, but are not limited to, promoting aggressive acts, creating an obsession with social power, and allowing a system of injustice to be born.
There’s a lot more to being Italian than the typical stereotypes that we have come to know from movies, television and books. From the Catholic mobsters who kill during the week but always make it to mass on Sunday, to the “how you doin” views of Joey from the television show “Friends”, people often forget the more important parts of being Italian. It is a culture like no other, full of history, art, and most importantly, their passion for food. Italian food, in my opinion, is the best in the world. Italians put so much into everything they make that the time and effort is tasted with every single bite. One of my favorite dishes would have to be fettuccini alfredo and it just happens to be a fairly easy, but extremely delicious, dish to make. Trust me, if I can make it, you can make it.
Italy is located in Europe and is part of the European Union. It is along the borders of France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. Italy is on the Italian peninsula, which means it is surrounded by water on three sides. The seas surrounding Italy are the Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Ligurian Sea, and Tyrrhenian Sea. The islands of Sicily and Sardinia which are part of Italy are located in the Mediterranean Sea as well. In the past, due to rough terrain, there were few major roads between cities causing the individual cities to become self- sufficient. This isolation lead to mistrust from city to city that still exists today. (Signoretta)
The information provided in this lecture describes individualism as social patterns that involve an individual’s priority for self motivation, self confidence, self oriented, and self competent, self responsibility. Collectivism also involves social patterns, however collectivism involves individuals who are collective, which means these individual prefer to be a part of some type of group. These groups may be internal or external.
Collectivism and individualism, both have a fair share of issues. The articles that exemplify both collectivism and individuality are “1984”, “Anthem” and a poem called “Unknown Citizen”. Collectivism and individualism have an even amount of dilemmas, both collectivism and individualism come from totally different perspectives. The Struggles associated with a collectivism is that everything, every action, every thought, every person acts as a whole in unison, so there isn’t any room for different opinions and thoughts, as for an individualist society people have to sacrifice themselves both physically, mentally and overcome their
Power distance defines the degree to which people accept hierarchical authority and how far they are willing to subordinate themselves. The inequality in power is explained from the bottom up.
Uncertainty avoidance measures a culture's feeling towards the uncertain or unknown (Neuliep, 2009, p.74). Hofstede (2011) clarifies this concept stating that "uncertainty avoidance is not the same as risk avoidance; it deals with a society's tolerance for ambiguity" (p.10) adding that it is a metric for comfort in unstructured situations. A weak uncertainty avoidance would be able to find comfort in open-ended situations. A culture with a strong uncertainty avoidance is riddled with urgency and anxiety when dealing with unfamiliar situations; they hold a belief that what is different is dangerous (Neuliep, 2009, p.75).