Those newly defined illnesses changed people’s perceptions and expectations of health and old age, thus dramatically altering society’s expectations of medicine and subsequent life quality. Conrad’s ethnography is a good example of the ethnomedical approach to medical anthropology that addressed several health conditions that are prominent in the United States. He culminated his book by arguing medicalization primarily serves as a form of social control, solving problems with individuals and not society. While the book clearly explained a wide range of negative causes and effects of medicalization, Conrad only acknowledged a few examples of successful resistance briefly in his last chapter. In order to empower its readers beyond education, the book should have examined these instances of anti-medicalization to find similarities and derive productive countermeasures for individuals to follow.
The eighteenth century saw many advances in the education of medicine. Outdated theories began to be turned into practical observation which sprang new thoughts and theories. The many medical discoveries of this period ‘…eventually made it impossible for faculty professors to deny the value of a detailed knowledge of the human body’ (Book1, p.357). Preconceptions were diminished on the ‘demeaning’ activities of surgery and pharmaceuticals and physicians were now ‘…encouraged to become experts themselves in the arts of surgery and pharmacy’ (Book 1, p.358). The eighteenth century saw the influence of the enlightenment institution which promoted ‘…the value of practical institutionalized learning’ (Book 1, p.345) instigating the calling for hopes of rehabilitating medical institutions across the world.
The theories of Hippocrates and Galen are of vital importance to the development of medicine, as they shaped medicine for many centuries to come. Hippocrates was the first to dismiss the notion that magic, spirits, or the Gods could cause or cure disease, reforming the course medicine took. Galen followed in the footsteps of Hippocrates, working relentlessly on human anatomy, endeavoring to fathom how the body functions and what happens when something goes wrong. Without Hippocrates’ belief in diseases being a product of nature revolutionizing medicine, and Galen’s extensive work on the anatomy of the human body, medicine may not have progressed to what it is today. Hippocrates of Cos was an Ancient Greek physician who is thought to be one of the most revolutionary figures in the history of medicine.
J R Soc Med 106 (2013): 288–92. Scarborough, John, Van Der Eijk, Philip J., Hanson, Ann, and Siraisi, Nancy. Studies in Ancient Medicine: Hippocrates on Ancient Medicine. Translated by Mark J. Schiefsky. Boston: Brill, 2005.
Finally, the ways in which individuals negotiate and resist the medicalisation of death will be discussed including the rise of pro-euthanasia groups, increasing use of complementary medicine, and the popularity of the hospice movement. The main elements of the medical model of health are the search for objective, discernable signs of disease, its diagnosis and treatment (Biswas, 1993). Therefore, by adhering to this reductionist view, the human body is seen as a biochemical machine (Turner, 1995) and health merely as an absence of disease, a commodity to be bought and sold. The rise of hospitals with their goal of curing and controlling disease has led to the marginalisation of lay medicine, and a focus upon the individual rather than society as a cause of ill health. Health education and promotion with their focus upon 'victim blaming' and individualism have extended the remit of the medical profession from the hospital into the community.
We like to think of medicine as a vast sea of knowledge, a science of certainty and applied research intended to heal and cure. Patients visit their doctors expecting to be diagnosed, prescribed, and treated. For several patients, this optimistic outlook is in fact the order of things. But, for many others, medicine is an experimental endeavor and very human in nature. Atul Gawande, in his collection of essays entitled Complications: A Surgeon’s Notes on an Imperfect Science, sheds light on this view of medicine as a field of possibilities and dead ends, improvements and failures.
Galen’s tradition of dissecting only while a professor aloud theories of Galen were also broken. (Renaissance Medicine). These men made discoveries that included the rejection of cauterization to treat amputation because it was unnecessarily painful and led to deat... ... middle of paper ... ...eries. The physicians were able to become more educated, and make new medicines. They figured out how to make have safer and less painful procedure.
This essay will also highlight some of the challenges faced by the societies around the world in addressing medical inequality. Medical dominance and medicalisation According to Foucault and Illich (in Van Krieken et al. 2006: 351-352), doctors and the medical profession have traditionally been empowered by their knowledge as the authority that society defers to with regards to the definition of disease and health. With improvements in medical technology as well as the advent of the hospital, an evolution... ... middle of paper ... ...London: SAGE. Broom, D.H. and Woodward, R.V.
Herophilus and Erasistratus began the use of dissection to diverge from humoral thinking and provide new knowledge by any means necessary. Galen began to combine humoral and anatomical thinking while dissecting animals, which led to many wrong assumptions. Finally, and possibly most importantly Andreas Vesalius used dissection to publicize his way of approaching the body. With his hands-on approach he broke the chain of observation and allowed up close and personal learning. To conclude, the published writings of these important figures enabled people to comprehend medicine much quicker, while still allowing flexibility to change the way humans see the function and structure of the body.
Versalius contribution and methods were important to medicines he oversaw all stages in the Human anatomy dissection and pointed out some of the Galen's mistakes. As doctors believed that Galen was right about everything. In the second edition of his book "The Fabric", Versalius said there were no holes in the Septum of the heart. As before Versalius, Galen had to rely on dissecting animals for knowledge of human anatomy. Another discovery of human anatomy was by William Harvey, who was born in Kent in 1578.