I can remember how I failed my physics test or I can remember how the 50 I received on my physics test motivated me to become an expert in that unit on the final. In essence, memory is actually a mix of emotion, sense perception, and our personal experiences from the past. Many theories support the fact that memory is the basis of our knowledge, such as our foundation of knowledge on history; therefore memory can be reliable to an extent. However memory can often times be unreliable, especially in eye witness testimony and during emotional experiences. According to many historians, memory is the basis of our history books.
This means that different situations can delay our memory processes. JSMF explains how memory makes it difficult for us to generate original ideas. JSMF explains heuristics; unconscious and fast ways of thinking that make reasoning easier. As heuristics are errors in thinking, these errors are related to poor encoding, as seen in UP. In addition, previous settings can sway how we react to information.
The consequence of faulty reasoning impedes an individual’s ability to effectively collaborate, make sense of new information, process and evaluation the everyday real world situations (Weinstock, M. P., Neuman, Y., & Glassner, A., 2006, p. 338). This can impact relationships. Based on this study, social scientist argued that individual “cognitive ability” and the ability to identify factors that influence poor logic can improve effective reasoning and encourage sound arguments (Weinstock et al., 2006, p. 338). Social scientist identified prevalent forms of faulty logic as ad hominem, false cause, non-sequitur, circular argument, fallacy of over-simplification and excessive dependence on authority (Woodard et al., 2014 pp. 94-98).
Self Deception Self deception is the process or fact of misleading ourselves to accept as true or valid what is false or invalid. Self deception, in short, is a way we justify false beliefs to ourselves. There is no doubt that sometimes we are not realistic. Not all of our actions are rational or intentional. Sometimes we avoid reality, we deny the truth, and we fool ourselves.
Yet another argument against Levitt and Dubner is the outcry surrounding the processes used to devise their controversial conclusions. While many opponents challenge the nature of the studies, people like Charles Jobs said their statistical methods were wrong. He illustrates how Freakonomics suggests “socioeconomic situations which violate a normative standard involving real life situations” (Jobs). He cites the naming study, which challenges the fabric of many people’s core beliefs and is viewed by many as unethical. Jobs attacked the virtue of the study by citing Levitt and Dubner’s conclusion of how “a person with a distinctively black name… does have a worse life outcome than a woman named Molly or a man named Jake” (119).
One of the most interesting phenomenon related to memory is memory distortions. One way in which they occur is through suggestibility, where people begin to remember false experiences if researchers suggested to them that they experienced it (Sternberg and Sternberg, 2012). In real-life situations, this is caused in part by memory being constructive “in that prior experiences affects how we recall things and what we actually recall from memory” (Sternberg and Sternberg, 2012). People’s prior experiences, including their bias and expectations, may influence how they experience false memory formations; the formation of false memories is also affected by several possible factors, one of which may be sleep deprivation (Frenda, Patihis, Loftus,
Motivation to undertake in such a study can be said to expand on the existing knowledge as well as to close any gaps due to lack of insight and testing in specific areas – short-term memory and recall performance. Another reason as to why this topic is being researched is to further my own interest within this specialised area of memory as well as cognitive neuroscience in psychology. Research Question Are there any significant differences that exist between short-term memory and recall performance in young adulthood and middle adulthood? Hypothesis There are significant differences that exist between the two age groups with regards to their short-term memory and recall performances. 2.
Thereupon conscious efforts could be taken to reduce false memories in individuals suffering from psychological disorders. As some disorders are usually a result of misinterpretation of events in life due to perverted inner beliefs or fears, this can be an appropriate intervention . Classically, it is true for adult reconstruction of childhood abuse and trauma which is widely studied. The research shows that these sort of memories are often distorted and self created, with no relevance to reality. Hence, it is of great value to study these false or partially false memories, as they can lead to severe psychiatric conditions such as depression and multiple personality disorder (Frankel et.al 1993).
My uncle who lived in Katy for almost 5 years never new that there was a law that prohibited people from using their mobile devices in school zones until he actually got fined for doing so. This experience caused him to research all the laws that exist in Katy in order to prevent this from happening again. The more people are aware of how easy it is to get distracted while driving the better. A lot more lives can be saved and the yearly increase in accidents in Texas can start to
What Psychological Research Has Told Us about the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony L and P = Loftus and Palmer Pps = Participants EWT = Eyewitness testimony Despite the considerable importance juror’s place on EWT, psychological research has shown that EWT tends to be unreliable. This unreliability can be explained in terms of the reconstructive nature of memory (schema theory). Introduced by Bartlett (1932), reconstructive memory refers to the extent to which memory is distorted or otherwise modified (reconstructed) by experience. In practice this means that instead of storing an exact replica of the episode they are witnessing, eyewitnesses may combine the initial stimulus with elements of their existing knowledge and experience (or schema) to form a reconstructed memory resulting in an inaccurate EWT account. Reconstruction is not the only source of distortion in EWT as the language used in leading questions and post-event information may further distort reconstructive memory and so lead to memory blending and confabulation.