Iran-Contra Scandals

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Iran-Contra Scandals ”I think everyone knew we were walking a very thin line.”(Owen) Not many Americans know the truth that lies behind the Iran-Contra scandals. Most would be surprised to know about the deception of our leaders. Still today, some truth of Iran-Contra lies hidden in the conscience of the people who organized it, aided it, and went through with it. It started with good intentions, but soon was corrupted. Some may argue that we must do what we can to smother the flame of communism, but I believe that deception, abuse of power and bloodshed is no way to go about it. To fully understand Iran-Contra, you must know the history behind it. Draper explains to us that the Iranian Revolution of 1978-1979 brought the fall of the tyrant Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi and gave rise to Ayatollah Khomeini. Khomeini led the Shiite clerics, whose goal was to establish an Islamic state. In July 1979, the Nicaraguan Revolution overthrew the dictator Somoza and replaced the dynasty with the Sandinistas. The Sandinistas were a communist regime that sought allies with Castro and the Soviet Union. Khomeini and Sandinista had different views, both had one important thing in common; they came to power by defeating United States’ resistance, thus they were regarded with hostility. The United States was then left with the question of what to do next. The Reagan administration saw the Sandinistas not as nationalists, but as representatives of a communist conspiracy that must be stopped. “ Lurking in the background of these affairs, then, was the ghost of McCarthyism…”(Draper 568). The White House took the 1950’s idea of McCarthyism to take every method short of a full-scale war to overthrow the Sandinista regime. The War Against the Sandinistas The United States Central Intelligence Agency armed and trained an anti-Sandinista Guerrilla force based in the neighboring countries of Honduras and Costa Rica called the “Contras.” (Corn) These Contras began a series of terrorist raids in Nicaragua, and the death toll mounted. A large amount of opposition and protests by European powers soon followed. Congress then banned any further US financial or military assistance to the Contras in legislation titled the Boland amendment. (“Iran-Contra Affair”) This is where the deception started. The Reagan administration knew that if their aid to the Contras st... ... middle of paper ... ...ork: Hill and Wang, 1991. Flynn, Barry. “Some former hostages dispute North claim on success of Iran-Contra.” Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service. 19 Oct. 1994. Fritz, Sara. “Iran Contra Report Finds Foreign Policy Gone Away,” Los Angeles Times. 19 Jan. 1994. “Iran-Contra.” Real History Archives. http://www.realhistoryarchives.com/collections/conspiracies/irancontra.htm “Iran-Contra Affair”. The Columbia Encyclopedia. 5th ed. 1993. “Iran-Contra Affair”. The Reader’s Companion to American History. Ed 1991. Kemper, Vicki. “Oliver North: For God, Country, & Money “ Palm Beach Post. 9 Jan. 1994, pp.1F+. “The Iran-Contra Affair: The Making of a Scandal, 1983-1988.” The National Security Archive. 1998. http://38.202.78.21/icintro.htm. “The Iran-Contra Scandal.” American Decades. Gale Research, 1998. Theoharis, Athan. "The Politics of Scholarship: Liberals, Anti-Communism, and McCarthyism." http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/theoharis.html Walsh, Lawrence E. “Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters.” 4 Aug. 1993. http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/. Walsh, Lawrence E. Firewall. London: Norton & Company, 1997.

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