Ionic Bonding Essay

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Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules.
Ions are an electrically charged atom formed by the loss or gain of an electron, occurring in the outer shells and depends on where the electrons fall in the periodic table. Ions are formed of a single
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Ionic bonding occurs between metals and non-metals atoms. Metals atoms have one to three outer shell electrons they will achieve a more stable electron arrangement if they lose these electrons, on the other hand, non-metals will need to gain electrons to achieve a noble gas electron structure. Potassium chloride (KCl) is an example of an ionic bonding, potassium outer shell has one electron and chlorine outer shell seven, as a result, potassium outer electron transfer to chlorine making the both elements with outer main levels full. The electron is transferred from metal to non-metal, making potassium a positively charged due to loss of one electron and chlorine negatively charged because it gains an electron. The negative and positive ions attract each other by electrostatic forces forming an ionic bond compound, a lattice. when repeated create a giant ionic lattice hard to melt. The covalent bond occurs when two non-metal atoms share the outer electron to achieve a noble gas arrangement. Atoms held together by electrostatic attraction between the nuclei and the shared electron, with just a few atoms forming a small covalent structure or with millions of atoms forming a rigid…show more content…
Van der walls forces are found between all atoms and molecules. This force is weaker than dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonds forces, although, the larger molecules or atomic masses the bigger van der walls forces will be. Dipole-dipole forces occur between molecules that have a permanent net dipole, that means it attract the forces between the positive end of one polar molecule to the negative end of another polar molecule. The strongest intermolecular force is the hydrogen bond, it is a relatively strong form of intermolecular attraction. A hydrogen bond occurs when an electronegativity atom with a pair of electrons bonded to a hydrogen, a good example of that it is water. Water is not the only example of hydrogen bonding, it happens when hydrogen bonded with fluorine, nitrogen and oxygen as well. The nitrogen-hydrogen-oxygen system is linear, all the shapes of molecules are three dimensional and different one from the other. Electrons around the molecules remain in pairs, each pair repels other electrons pair cause a repulsion moving as far apart possible. The shape of a simple molecule depends on the numbers of electrons around the nucleus. If there are two pairs of electrons around the atom the molecule is linear, with three pairs a molecule is a
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