The first step is to identify the performance level and content classification. This is accomplished by comparing the instructional objective with the content classification. The second step is to examine the primary presentation forms. The four primary presentation forms are rules, examples, recall and practice. Depending on the performance level desired and then content classification, a different performance presentation is preferred.
Goals determine purpose, aim, and reasoning for what teachers and their classes will engage during class time. Goals tell what students will be able to do at the end of units. Goals are general . Objectives determine what students will do to acquire further knowledge and skills. Objectives define the broader goals of lesson plans.
Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1982). The coaching of teaching. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 4-10. Lavie, J.M.
Reece and Walker (2002) describe a teaching strategy as a combination of student activities supported by the use of appropriate resources to provide particular learning resources. It is that procedure by which new knowledge is fixed in the minds of students permanently. For this purpose, a teacher does extra activities in the class. These activities help the teacher to take shift from one strategy to another. A method of teaching on the other hand is directly related to the presentation of the lesson.
I will discuss the sections of the planning process that need to be considered planning for a lesson. • Lesson content and building blocks of lesson planning. • The methodology of Teaching and learning. • The theories of learning and what influences planning. • Assessment through the use of a self-evaluation pro-forma.
This paper will outline Gagné's instructional design theory and provide information on how it is applied to instructional technology. Gagné's Instructional Design Theory "Instructional design theories, such as Gagné's theory, take the cognitivist paradigm one logical step further by claiming that an instructiona... ... middle of paper ... ... Gagné, R.M. (1985). The conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc. Gagné, R.M.
An ESP programme acn use tests such as, In-class assignment results (formative), mid-term examination results (formative), final term examination/achievement test results (summative) as well as samples of students’ writing, self and peer assessment, and my personal observation to monitor the learning progress and make any changes that situational factors may require in the course design or the teaching methodology. 1.2. Choice of Assessment with its underlying principles Assessment refers to what students can or cannot do and this ability is measured against a set of learning objectives that have been proposed in the course design (Gronlund, 1981). For example, a diagnostic test which is a performance based test on an extended sample of writing (McNamara, 2000) can be used to have clear picture of students’ writing ability both grammatical and discoursal. Similarly, achievement tests in formative and summative formats are used to measure the learning progress that has been made to date.
(Siegel, 2012) Loughran (1996, as cited in Siegel, 2012) defines metacognition as the “deliberate and purposeful act of thinking which centers on ways of responding to problem situations in teaching and learning.” ... ... middle of paper ... ... a higher level learning in the future, I will teach them the way of making study plans, and self-evaluating skills. Besides, I will improve the skills of monitoring by designing diverse assignments. From my teaching approach, students will think critically through using self-monitoring report and group discussion in class. Furthermore, from evaluating surface-deep learning, I have a more understanding on the differences between using surface learning compare with deep learning. In my future teaching career, I will help students thinking critically, as well as querying other’s viewpoints and presenting their own conceptions.
In summary, lesson planning is needed for a) giving a sense of direction, b) helping students become aware of the lesson objectives and the learning tasks they are asked to perform, c) managing a classroom, d) helping teachers to solve, in advance, teaching problems, and e) reducing anxiety on the part of students and, especially, the teacher. Teaching approach is the second step. The five factors, which could be applied in the teaching approach of global English, are presented below: 1. LESSON CLARITY 2. INSTRUCTIONAL VARIETY 3.
Shirley Grundy defines curriculum as: ‘A programme of activities designed so that pupils will attain so far as possible certain educational and other schooling ends or objectives’ ( Grundy, 1987:11). Curriculum in generally need to consider the syllabus as the knowledge, the pedagogy as the process, the assessment as the product, the praxis as the style of delivery. Providing planned studying programme with consideration the grounds of its justifications, curriculum informs what and how is to be learned and taught. According to the context curriculum offers principle to meet individual cases. This enables to evaluate the progress of students and teachers, and to implement according contexts of varying pr... ... middle of paper ... ...and presentation skills.