Invention Relating to Alloy of Copper

1235 Words5 Pages
The present invention relates to an alloy of copper having high conductivity and low resistivity. Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. Electric charge is the property of matter that causes it to experience a force when close to other electrically charged matter.
Conduction in metals must follow Ohm's Law, which states that the current is directly proportional to the electric field applied to the metal. The key variable in applying Ohm's Law is a metal's resistivity. Resistivity is the opposite of electrical conductivity, evaluating how strongly a metal opposes the flow of electric current. This is commonly measured across the opposite faces of a one-meter cube of material and described as an ohm meter (Ω⋅m). Resistivity is often represented by the Greek letter rho (ρ). Electrical conductivity, on the other hand, is commonly measured by Siemens per metre (S⋅m−1) and represented by the Greek letter sigma (σ). One Siemens is equal to the reciprocal of one ohm.
Metals in general have high electrical conductivity. This conductivity comes from the large number of delocalized electrons in the outer orbit which are free to move. The atoms of metal elements are characterized by the presence of valence electrons - electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are free to move about. It is these 'free electrons' that allow metals to conduct an electric current. Because valence electrons are free to move they can travel through the lattice that forms the physical structure of a metal. Under an electric field, free electrons move through the metal, passing an electric charge as they move. The transfer of energy is strongest when there is little resistance. The most effective con...

... middle of paper ...

...netic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic depending upon their behaviour in a magnetic field. The alloys so produced have improved magnetic properties, thus showing improved electromagnetic conductivity.
The following table gives a list of the no of free electrons and the corresponding resistivity and conductivity of the components of the alloy. Metals have ‘energy bands’ which are nothing but energy levels grouped together which have similar energies. The characteristic energy level up to which the electrons fill is called the Fermi level. Only electrons in energy levels near the Fermi level are free to move around since the electrons can easily jump among the partially occupied states in that region. In metals the presence of many energy levels near the Fermi level, provides many electrons which can move. This is what causes the high electronic conductivity in metals.

    More about Invention Relating to Alloy of Copper

      Open Document