Hazards of Antibiotic Resistance Genes ni GE Foods, 2002, <http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/genemarker.cfm> Wright,Robert. Molrcular Biologists James Watson and Francis Crick, 18 Nov. 2003, <http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/watsoncrick.html > http://www.biotechnology.gov.au/biotechnologyOnline/interactives/gene_splicing_interactive.htm
However, as more evidence arose suggesting that this method only captures a small breadth of the microbial community, a new methodology has started to gain momentum. Instead of solely focusing on identifying lab-cultured microorganisms individually through phenotypic analysis of biochemical and physiological test results, samples from environments are being evaluated en masse and then identified successfully using 16S RNA sequence and phylogentic analysis (2). This new method of analysis presents to the world of microbiology not only vast room for expansion, but room for even greater medical and scientific advancements as well. The need for new procedures was an evident one given the quick accumulation of evidence and the rising concern for the presence of what are being called unculturable microorganisms (any organisms that cannot be cultivated in a lab). Consider what has been dubbed 'the great plate anomaly,' in which when direct counts are used to quantify active cells, the viable plate counts tend to significantly differ from direct microscopic counts.
We possibly overlook the microorganisms when thinking of LMO since plants and animals probably will first come to our mind. With the development of recombinant DNA technology, metabolic potentials of microorganisms are being explored. Nowadays, genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) have vast applications in human and animal health, bioremediation, and in industries such as food and textiles. The first GMM, specifically E. coli, was made in the 1970s (Teisha, 2013). A few years later, GMMs which produced essential human proteins were churned out by researchers (Teisha, 2013).
Introduction What is Genetically Modified Organism? Plant Biotechnology is continuing its development within modern day science. With the increase understanding of scientific studies has led the improvement of plant productivity, quality and health. This understanding also contended potential issues on plant growth (Monsanto 2011). Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell.
Periods of Biotechnology History 3.1. Ancient biotechnology (Pre- 1800): Early applications and speculation 3.2. Classical biotechnology (1800-1950): Significant advances in the basic understanding of Genetics 3.3. Modern biotechnology (1950 onwards): Discovery of DNA, Recombinant DNA technology, genetically modified organisms, animal cloning and stem cell research 3.1. Ancient biotechnology (Pre 1800) Most of the discoveries in biotechnology in the ancient period before 1800 were mainly based on the common observations of nature.
A rapidly changing healthcare industry requires researchers to explore various possibilities in the attempt to develop effective treatment options. The human genome is a complex organism that is vulnerable to invading pathogens and environmental changes. Advancements in human health directly require treatment of the human body on a cellular level. Rigorous examination and experimentation of microorganisms revealed encouraging scientific discoveries. An efficient mechanism promising vast improvements to healthcare is the development of gene manipulation.
Translational bioinformatics is a newly emerging field of informatics which defines as the development and application of informatics methods to optimize the transformation of increasingly massive biomedical data into practicable knowledge and novel technologies which can improve human health and diseases. There is a tremendous progress in scientific discovery since the foundation of double helix structure. However, it has not translated much into practical health benefit and has become a rate-limiting step for clinical application. Such phenomenon could be due to several barriers, one of which is the connection of molecular entities to clinical entities. There is a paradigm shift in biology where programs are focused upon the development and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine therefore the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to assemble, manage and analyse the rapidly growing heterogeneous data sets has become imperative (Altman, 2012).
What are their effects on the environment? The following paper will focus on such questions as well as providing a better understanding of what genetically modified foods are and how they should be regulated. What are genetically modified foods? Although traditional plant breeding has been around for ages, the development of recombinant DNA techniques have offered a wide range of valuable genes and methods of inserting them into the plant genomes. Two major advances in molecular biology have resulted in new plant breeding technology: "The construction of genetic maps saturated with DNA markers, and the subsequent design of relatively simple PCR-based assays to facilitate the selection of desired alleles at closely linked loci and the resulting development of plant lines with desired combinations of traits; The cloning and DNA sequencing of specific genes, the reassembly of specific DNA fragments into functional chimeric genes, and the transfer of such genes to single plant cells from which complete plants can be regenerated via cell and tissue culture."
A person’s entire gene makeup could be mapped out before they are even born. This in turn raises many controversial issues such as gene discrimination and “human perfecting”. Through the gene makeup we are able to help prevent and cure many diseases, however, life and health insurance companies could use this map to make more money off the individuals who are more likely to become sick. The world of biotechnology is huge, but scientists are only beginning to explore the dangers and benefits of genetic engineering and it is going to become a very mainstream part of our lives. DEFINITIONS “Genetic Engineering, or gene splicing is the scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism.
“[...] any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.” This statement is often used to describe the fundamental aim of biotechnology around the world. Karl Ereky, one of the foremost proponents of the term biotechnology foresaw that “merging biology and technology could be used to transform living substances into products that are more useful than in their natural state,” thus benefiting society by meeting human needs or demands to improve our quality life. Although the use of living systems to make a product has an established history, the modern definition of biotechnology is usually associated with recombinant DNA technology. The idea of recombinant DNA was first proposed by Peter Lobban but the founding principles were published in 1973 by Stanly Cohen and Hebert Boyer. “Recombinant DNA technology allows DNA to be produced via artificial means.