INTERTEXTUALITY AND MANIPULATION IN THE DISCOURSE OF INCITEMENT ON JIHAD: THE CASE STUDY OF AL-QAEDA’S FORMER LEADER OSAMA BIN LADEN (1998-2004)
Assist. Prof. Dr. Sawsan Kareem Al-Saaidi
College of Education/ University of Al-Qadisiyah firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
The study examines Osama bin Laden’s selected speeches which incite al-Qaeda’s followers in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and many other countries on the use of jihad. Bin Laden used religious references and quotations from Glorious Quran and Prophetic Hadith to manipulate the use of jihad and thus to make the speeches persuasive. The study aims at showing how bin Laden used intertextuality including religious…show more content… Theoretical Framework
3.1 Fairclough’s (1992) concept of intertextuality The researcher has employed Fairclough’s (1992) concept of intertextuality based on Bakhtin (1981) and Kriesteva (1986). According to Fairclough (1992), intertextuality is of two types: constitutive intertextuality or interdiscursitivity and manifest intertextuality. Constitutive intertextuality or interdiscursitivity concerns with the constitution of the text through the mixture with other different genres, discourses and styles (Bullo, 2014). Manifest intertextuality refers to the presence of other’s words through the use of quotation marks and reported speeches. This indicates that in any text there are various elements and voices utilised from various sources that speak directly or indirectly to the reader.
3.2 Van Dijk’s (1998) Ideological Square Theory In this section, the researcher explains van Dijk’s (1998) theory of ideology which revolves around the notion of ideological Square. The word Square refers to four dimensions that can elucidate and validate the existence of societal inequality and polarisation. The ideological Square includes:
1. Express/emphasize information that is positive about…show more content… Anyone who takes them as an ally becomes one of them—God does not guide such wrongdoers."
(H) God Almighty said: "[Let them be] on their guard and armed with their weapons: the disbelievers would dearly like you to be heedless of your weapons and baggage, so that they can take you in a single assault."
(I) As the Prophet, said: "Only he whose aim in fighting is to keep God's word supreme fights in God's cause.'"
(J) God's Prophet, said: "Bring good news and do not discourage others."
(K) He also said: "Abu Talha's voice in the army is better than a thousand men."
(L) At the battle of Yarmuk, a man said to Khaled ibn Walid: "How many the Byzantines are, and how few the Muslims."
(M) Khaled, may God be pleased with him, replied: "Nonsense. Armies do not triumph by having large numbers. They are only conquered by their own