In the middle of WW II, many Americans were worrying about their next meal or about the house payments; however, this wasn’t the case for Japanese Americans. Instead, they were worrying about if they were going to eat and if they were going to have a house due to internment camps. These camps were designed to protect and nurture the Japanese from the American people who were persecuting them. However, these camps did little good beyond that. Many Japanese Americans faced starvation, horrible living quality, and a large distance away from what they knew as home. These Japanese immigrants were always treated with discrimination in America; however, after Pearl Harbor they were forced to leave their homes, live in internment camps, and face prejudice for the years following. The events leading up to the internment camps for these Japanese citizens and immigrants start in the 19th century. During the eighteen hundreds many Japanese citizens moved to America in the hope of economic prosperity. They did find jobs; however, they were the left over jobs no Americans wanted like clearing out mountains for the railways with dynamite. These dangerous jobs were really the only jobs that the Japanese had to choose from due to the extreme racism they faced in America. The Americans, who were not fond of the Japanese people, feared that American jobs belonged to the American people and not immigrants who had little training. When the United States passed the Immigration Act of 1924, many Japanese immigrants seeking economic opportunity were sent back home and were not allowed to live in America. After this Act was passed, not as many Japanese citizens were allowed into the country. Even with this law, some Japanese Immigrants still... ... middle of paper ... ...and the working hours were usually long and tiring. This made their dream of gaining everything they had lost even harder when they could barely give their families enough food. As the years went on, the discrimination decreased and more jobs were open, but the treatment was still evident. These Japanese Americans were stripped of all of their rights during this time period. While most of America was getting back into shape with jobs and living conditions, these Japanese internees were denied that right. They were sent to these internment camps for protection; however all they received was injustice. Protection is supposed to be safe and without worry, and confinement is supposed to be punishment and isolation. The more in depth research goes, on Japanese Internment, both protection and confinement seem to have the same meaning in terms of internment camps.
It is not a well known fact that around the time the Holocaust took place in Europe, another internment (less extreme) was taking place in the United States. “Betrayed by America” by Kristin Lewis gives readers an insight on what happened to Japanese-Americans in America. The article tells us about Hiroshi Shishima, Japanese-Americans internment, and what was going on during the regime. During WW2, America went into a frenzy after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Many Americans believed what was being said about Japanese-Americans even though it was proven to be false. Since the whole fiasco with Japan took place, many Japanese-Americans were forced into internment in certain parts of the United States. The reason for the internment of Japanese-Americans was due to fear & hysteria, racial
What were the Japanese internment camps some might ask. The camps were caused by the attack of Pearl Harbor in 1942 by Japan. President Roosevelt signed a form to send all the Japanese into internment camps.(1) All the Japanese living along the coast were moved to other states like California, Idaho, Utah, Arkansas, Colorado, Wyoming and Arizona. The camps were located away from Japan and isolated so if a spy tried to communicate, word wouldn't get out. The camps were unfair to the Japanese but the US were trying to be cautious. Many even more than 66% or 2/3 of the Japanese-Americans sent to the internment camps in April of 1942 were born in the United States and many had never been to Japan. Their only crime was that they had Japanese ancestors and they were suspected of being spies to their homeland of Japan. Japanese-American World War I veterans that served for the United States were also sent to the internment camps.(2)
The U.S. went into WWII in 1942 after the Japanese bombed U.S. naval base, Pearl Harbor. The bombing of Pearl Harbor took out the majority of the U.S. Navy. This attack struck fear in all Americans, and was followed by extreme hostility to the Japanese Americans. The fear became so severe that the U.S. government created the internment camps inland from the west coast where they sent all people of Japanese descent. This occurred because the government was afraid that the Japanese Americans, living too close to the coast, could communicate with Japan. They were “stripped of their civil liberties” (Des Jardins) on American soil. Part of the American Dream for people was to escape persecutions of all kinds. The camps eroded people’s American Dream and freedoms. Moving into these camps was disaster for the Japanese Americans. The camps destroyed the old traditions and gender roles. The men felt “emasculated by the low wages” (Des Jardins) they received from low-status jobs inside the camps and the women were “shamed in barrack commodes” (Des Jardins) having to expose themselves in front of their families and strangers. Before the camps, families would eat meals together. Once the Japanese Americans were forced into the camps and their lifestyles changed, families stopped their
There are several military and constitutional justifications the United States government had in placing the Japanese in internments after the attack on Pearl Harbor. These justifications can all be related to National Security, with fear of future attacks, sabotage and espionage, and doubt of Japanese American’s loyalty. The main purpose of the government is protection under the constitution. To ensure national security, the privacy of one maybe evaded to secure millions. Very few advocates of civil liberties stepped forward against the internments regardless of the constitutional rights being invaded of the American citizens and resident aliens.
On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, bringing the United States into World War II (Prange et al., 1981: p.174). On February 19, 1942, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 authorizing the Secretary of War and Military Commanders to prescribe areas of land as excludable military zones (Roosevelt, 1942). Effectively, this order sanctioned the identification, deportation, and internment of innocent Japanese Americans in War Relocation Camps across the western half of the United States. During the spring and summer of 1942, it is estimated that almost 120,000 Japanese Americans were relocated from their homes along the West Coast and in Hawaii and detained in U.S. government-run concentration camps (Daniels, 2004: p.3). Approximately two-thirds of these men and women were either nisei—second generation Japanese—or sansei—third generation—Japanese Americans, the other third were issei—first generation—Japanese immigrants living in the United States at the time. While issei generation Japanese people were born in Japan and were not eligible for United States citizenship, members of the nisei and sanei generations were born in the United States, and therefore, were legal American citizens. Regardless of this distinction in citizenship, however, American powers perceived all of these men and women to be an imposing threat to the security of the United States.
Japanese internment camps were located around the Western United States with the exception of Arkansas (which is located further east). On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. This sparked a period of war-time paranoia that led to the internment or incarceration of 110,000 Japanese Americans. Almost all of them were loyal citizens. Actually, many of them were not allowed to become citizens due to certain laws. Although these camps were nowhere close to as horrible as the concentration camps in Europe, the conditions were still pretty harsh for a while and caused internees to have various physical and psychological health effects and risks in the future.
The Japanese internment camps started in February, around two months after the Pearl Harbor bombing, which was also the reason America decided to enter the war. People’s suspicions of Japanese led the government, passing an order to uproot 120,000 people from their homes, lives, families, everything they knew. WWII brought lots of change, although their families were being contained, many young Japanese joined the U.S. army in the fight against Germany and Japan. It’s important for people to learn and remember who the really is against. “Sure enough, 40 days later January 20, 1942, came a letter that said, greeting from the President of the United States you are now in the army, and that was my draft notice.”( Interview with Norman Saburo
The federal government ruled most of the reasons behind Japanese internment camps. Further than two-thirds of the Japanese who were sentenced to internment camps in the spring of 1942 were in fact United States citizens. The internment camps were the centerpiece for legal confines of minorities. Most camps were exceedingly overcrowded and with deprived living conditions. The conditions included “tarpaper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind.” Unfortunately, coal was very hard to come by for the internees, so most would only have the blankets that were rationed out to sleep on. As for food, the allotment was about 48 cents per internee. This food was served in a mess hall of about 250 people and by other internees. Leadership positions within the camp were only given to the American-born Japanese, or Nisei. Eventually, the government decided that...
There are a number of reasons why the internment of the Japanese people had to take place. Japan was a major threat to the United States which made anyone of Japanese descendent a potential traitor and threat to America’s security. No one was quite sure what they were capable of.
In 1942 Roosevelt signed the Executive order 9066 which forced all Japanese-Americans to evacuate the West Coast. They were forced out no matter their loyalty or their citizenship. These Japanese-Americans were sent to Internment camps which were located in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas. There were ten camps all-together and 120,000 people filled them (2009). The immigrants were deprived of their traditional respect when their children who were American-born were indorsed authority positions within the camps. In 1945 Japanese-American citizens with undisrupted loyalty were allowed to return to the West Coast, but not until 1946 was the last camp closed.
Because of this order, 120,000 people of Japanese descent living in the U.S. were removed from their homes and placed in internment camps. The United States justified their action by claiming that there was a danger of those of Japanese descent spying for the Japanese. However more than two-thirds, approximately 62 percent, of those interned were American citizens and half of them were children. None had ever shown disloyalty to the nation. In some cases family members were separated and put in different camps. Only ten people were convicted of spying for the Japanese during the entire war and they were all white people. None of them were Japanese. Because of the wartime hysteria and prejudice, many Japanese people were forced to leave their homes and go to the intern camps.
Their loyalty was questioned, they had to suffer. They were betrayed, they had to stay in camp in fear and anguish. All the suffering that Japanese American had to face shows that America is not a paradise, America can make people feel so bad, though there is hope for good life in people. Racism is the foundation for hate and anger and which would later turn into action. In shirt there was a combination of racism and anger that lead Japanese Americans into the horrors of the internment camps. There are no cities or states like this in United States anymore. It was very heart breaking situation but this should always be included in United States history, so that our next generation will never forget what Japanese Americans had to go through. At this point in history of United States, what we can see is that white people are discriminating, ignoring Japanese people. They are following racism. They are practicing “Defense against Difference”, which is Milton Bennett saying. The people from United States, white people are showing differentiation between them and Japanese, they are showing difference between two culture and they are thinking whites are more superior to Japanese culture. I have learned a lot about intercultural sensitivity this semester. This assignment gave me opportunity to not only evaluate intercultural stages but I got to learn about the other cultures. I have learned that everybody should accept other culture and respect them. If we are aware of the history of Japanese Americans, everyone will be educated and there will be no chances of repeating the same history
The internment camps were permanent detention camps that held internees from March, 1942 until their closing in 1945 and 1946. Although the camps held captive people of many different origins, the majority of the prisoners were Japanese-Americans. There were ten different relocation centers located across the United States during the war. These Japanese Americans, half of whom were children, were incarcerated for up to 4 years, without due process of law or any factual basis, in bleak, remote camps surrounded by barbed wire and armed guards.
The internment of those of Japanese heritage during WWII was a disgrace to America. People were treated badly and were forced to live in structures with no heating or plumbing. Many of those interned were American citizens who had no loyalty to Japan, but they were forced to suffer because they were related to were from Japan. It is horrible that anyone should be forced to leave their homes and lives to be treated like they are the ones who did something wrong.
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt once proclaimed that the Pearl Harbor bombings that took place on December 7th, 1941 is, “ a date which will live in infamy.” The events that unfolded that fateful morning not only resulted in a U.S declaration of war against Japan the next day (subsequently promoted Germany/Italy to declare war against U.S three days later), but also proved to be a traumatic landmark event in the history of Japanese Americans. The aftermath of the Pearl Harbor bombings prompted Franklin D. Roosevelt to authorize Executive Order 9066 on February 19th, 1942, which consequently cleared they way for Japanese American internment. In Hawaii, where Japanese Americans made up one-third of the population, only 1200 to 1800 were interned. On the mainland (specifically the West Coast) over 100,000 Japanese Americans were interned. Despite widespread outcry in Japanese American communities, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of these exclusion orders in the 1944 landmark case Korematsu v. United States. The horrors of internment continued until January 2, 1945 when the exclusion order was nullified, and in 1946 the last internment was closed. Despite being released the hardships and material loss suffered by Japanese American internees were far from over. Many internees who survived this traumatic ordeal not only suffered from psychological problems, but also lost their properties and incomes. Although the U.S. government issued a public apology and compensated surviving former internees under the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, it is still unclear if this adequately compensates former internees for the long-term economic hardships that followed as a result of internment.