This paper I have written contains a lot of information about ISO 9000 and Quality Management Systems. I will first talk about some of the history and origins of the ISO phenomenon. I will also mention some of the changes and elements of the Quality Management Systems, financial issues, pros and cons of being certified, and the relationship ISO 9000 has with ISO 14000. The International Organization for Standardization was founded shortly after the end of World War II to bring commonality and uniformity to products as well as to a number of critical quality areas. Development of the ISO 9000 series was a natural step for the International Organization for Standardization.
Program design and standard query language (SQL) tools have become essential requirements for the database administrator to do this job. However, this technology requires additional supervision and many DBAs are not competent in SQL analysis and performance monitoring. The database administrator had to learn to master the skills of application logic and programming techniques. (Mullins 1995) The database administrator's job description and responsibilities have changed
This Digest looks at the motivations behind the initiation of industry standards and of national and state skill standards that would provide vocational program accountability. It examines the competency-based approach to the development of standards in relation to their effect on vocational education, drawing on reviews of the NVQs in Great Britain. Why Industries Set Skill Standards The gap between existing skills and desired or required skills is the basic impetus for the development of business/industry standards at all levels-local, state, and national. Many of these standards were developed over time, industry by industry, in response to competition from other industrialized nations and for the purpose of quality control. In the early 1970s, for example, automobile manufacturers were finding that graduates of automotive technology classes were lacking the skills necessary to work on cars with advanced technology systems.
Thus, companies must comply with the accounting requirements set out in the International Stock ExchangeÂ’s Continuing Obligations in order to help their shares to be listed on the International Stock Exchange of the UK and Republic of Ireland, Summary ======= From all the above , we can see that the importance of the regulations of finance reporting and it has be consummating constantly as required. Bibliography: www.gsk.org Financial Accounting Second Edition (John Arnold, Tony Hope, Alan South Worth, Linda Kirkham)
ISO 9000 standards can be defined as a series of international set standards used by companies to perfect on their quality. These standards were enacted by experts derived from different parts of the world. ISO 9000 Series Standards acts as guideline how companies are mandated to ensure their suppliers have accurate and appropriate quality systems. Basically, ISO 9000 Series Standards was initially developed with support from major credible international bodies obligated to ensure standardization in both quality management and assurance in all companies. ISO 9000 standards were initiated, developed and maintained by a credible organization known as International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
A company's quality management system must become the documented proof of a firm's commitment to quality management. A plan put together with quality procedures and work instructions is provided to help companies design their own quality management system. After completing the quality procedures, companies are audited and then determined if they should be certified for ISO 9000 or not (Parsanna 2). ISO: International Organization of Standards Founded in 1947 in Geneva Switzerland, ISO developed international standards and helped exchange goods and services worldwide. It is made up of over 90 countries including the US, which is called the American National Standards Institute.
SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE Abstract A consequence of the widespread utilisation of computer based technology over the past few decades has been the emergence of vast, highly complex computer systems whose content and structure are increasingly resistant to modification and change. However fallible such legacy systems remain, many are “mission-critical” whereby their failure may lead to the collapse of the business or industry in which they serve. In such cases, it is ultimately not possible to decommission the system in question. The present report investigates the nature of such systems and examines why legacy systems cause problems to Software Maintenance Managers? This report also provides a brief overview as to how such problems can be minimised and controlled.
The new methodologies include modifications to software development processes, to make them more productive and flexible. 2. Problems of Software Development Approaches There are many problems in other Software Development Approaches Some of them are following. • Evolving requirements: Most of the customers do not have a clear vision about the specifications of their requirements at the early stages. Some customers realize what their true requirements are only when they use an application that does not really meet their needs.
Modern civilisation is much dependent on software ranging from ordinary users to business empires. Given this reality, the quality of software really matters. As it is widely used and so important, low- quality software is not acceptable. But what exactly is software quality? Software quality is overused and vague in software engineering.
They way to do it is through international stardards, which provide guarantees that the company has the quality to achieve their objectives, and gives the client the confidence to assign the job to that company. ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is the international body that sets worldwide standards for manufacturing, trade and communication. Companies which follow ISO Standards not only obtain the guarantee that they can achieve their client´s requirements, this companies achieve different benefits provided by these Standards. International Standards bring technological, economic and societal benefits. There are several studies made by different authors that conclude that International Standards provide benefits to those who follow them.