Having an internal locus of control means that our successes and failures come from the amount of effort we put forth. People who are internals will hard for what they think they need in life. They won't blame their failures on anything else, but their own mistakes and not trying hard enough. Those who have an external locus of control will tend to believe that their success and failures come from luck or fate. They don't think they have to work for what they need in life, because the world will provide for
Internal locus of control is how you as a person dictates how their work or personal life is going to go. Meaning the results of something is based on ones behaviors and actions. For example, getting the new job promotion and you knowing that you got the job for your hard work and not because you think, it is out of pure luck.
Krishan, G.V., & Wei, Y. (2012). Do small firms benefit from auditor attestation of internal control effectiveness? Auditing, 31(4), 115-137. doi:10.2308/ajpt-50238
In conclusion, internal controls include separation of duties, assignment of responsibilities, third-party verification and the use of mechanical and physical controls. In and of themselves, these tactics stop and prevent much abuse of the bookkeeping and accounting systems. The addition of Sarbanes-Oxley requirements in 2002 require that a company enact internal controls and assign responsibility of the control system to executives and directors, further providing insurance that financial reporting is accurate. Without this insurance that reports are accurate, company stock will fall and investors will be lost. Even with intrinsic limitations, the positive aspects of good internal controls far outweigh the negative implications. Good internal controls equal accurate financial records and future company success.
Internal controls are increasingly a crucial part of any business large or small. Controls serve two purposes according to financial accounting chapter eight; they safeguard assets and enhance the accuracy and reliability of accounting records. Expanding on that concept internal controls are put in place as a result of activities that have occurred in the past and are an effort to protect internal and external users. Internal controls safeguard company assets by outlining fair and efficient regulations in an effort to prevent theft. Regulations designed to establish responsibility, segregation of duties, and accountability protect investors, management, and the public. The result of a financial outrage and catastrophes of WorldCom, Enron, Tyco, Hollinger, and Tyco necessitated the need for better regulation and control leading to the creation of the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX).
“The control process gives managers the tools needed to effectively monitor progress towards an objective” (Satterlee 2013. p.74). There are basically two types of controls utilized by management: internal and external controls. “Internal controls generally can be classified into two categories: preventive or detective” (Satterlee, 2013. p75). As the names depict, preventive is used to ensure things do not happen unless desired and detective is described as determining what happened after it already occurred. Preventive is generally the best choice. Merchant states, “The need for controls over any particular behavior or operation within an organization depends very simply on the impact of that area on overall organizational performance” (Merchant, 1982, p. 48). External control is on the outside of the organization which may deal with polices, auditing and procedures to name a few. The organization has little-to-no control over many of external controls; however, managers must remain cognizant of their affect on the organization and plan for any
According to the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) “internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.”
The companies will begin to implement its enterprise risk management system by developing an appropriate internal control and corporate governance system. In the wake of high-profile corporate scandals and subsequent regulatory legislation, reporting internal controls has become a requirement. These requirements have led to organizations viewing risk management as an area of vital importance.
Internal control is the most important business practice of the company, and it ensures the accuracy and reliability of financial reporting and protects the resources from any fraudulent activities. As technology grows, the number of computer based crimes and fraud increases; however, it is possible to control this computer based crimes with effective and efficient internal control systems within the company. According to Whittington & Pany (2014), the impact of IT on the auditing process is great; therefore, the auditors should consider and understand client’s internal control, data retention and processing policies in planning and timing of the audit. Some businesses might use more user-operated computers and think that it does not require
It is not detected, prevented or modified on a timely basis by client’s internal control system. It will occur in account balance, disclosure or class of transactions. This risk is a function of the effectiveness of the design and operation of an entity’s internal control. The control risk may not be zero, it may be minimal. Some control risk may always exist, it is due to the inherent limitations of internal control.
Overall, the company is having ineffective controls regarding different departments and in the whole organization. An effective internal audit department should be established within the organization which should test the effectiveness of these controls on regular basis and make it sure that all controls are working effectively and efficiently with the different departments of the organization. Also the Internal auditor should implement the most effective processes and measures to prevent and detect the fraud, corruption and non compliance with the laws and regulations in the organization. Establishment of internal audit committee would be helpful in this regard which comprises of executive and non executive directors.