Hypertexts are defined as, “a set of documents of any kind, (images, text, charts, tables, video clips, etc.,) connected to one another by links,” (Murray, 55). They have sparked interest in this new relationship between writer and audience. The plot is controlled/achieved by the reader, unlike in linear text where the writer controls the story’s destiny. The Victorian Web is such a hypertext. A project that began in 1987, The Victorian Web can be compared to a journal of interested readers contributing to the idea. It is a project of multiple writers, a feat nonlinear text can achieve with out a problem. With such possibilities, are hypertexts the new ideal medium?
Hypertext is changing the way we read, write and conceptualize literature. Traditionally, the distance between reader and writer with written works is maintained by multiple levels of people, paper and time. Once a piece of work is published, the writer's responsibility basically ends; meanwhile, the reader is still responsible for knowing and understanding all of the references the writer includes in the work. Hypertext creates a hyper-extension of the work, basically giving it a life of its own. A printed book is unable to recreate this same detailed precision and accessibility because of its physicality. A published book cannot be recalled instantly in order to make any changes or update information, unless it is reprinted and there is always a defined amount of time involved. Hypertext has the ability to link a multitude of related subject matters and authors, while incorporating a variety of techniques, such as sound and movement, to involve and extend the relationship between readers and writers.
The article “The Phenomenology of On-Screen Reading: University Students’ Lived Experience of Digitised Text,” written by Ellen Rose covers a multitude of themes in which Ellen Rose interviewed ten participants from the ages of 20-55 and utilized their answers in order to communicate her belief that reading on screen is much different than reading a physical book. Throughout the article she targets her audience on students and uses pathos, ethos, and logos persuasions in order to appeal to her readers and convey that she is credible, trustworthy, and logical. With a close analysis of Ellen Rose’s article “The Phenomenology of On-Screen Reading: University Students’ Lived Experience of Digitised Text” it is safe to say that Rose draws her audience
Before I get into my argument, I need to define a few more terms that are commonly confused or misunderstood. Some assume a uniform resource locator (URL), link, hyperlink, and hypertext are synonyms and this might lead to confusion if the distinction is not clear. By itself, a URL is just information and cannot do anything. It is a passive reference, much like a street address or telephone number. A link, on the other hand, is an active reference, a ...
In conclusion, we see that the nature of printed literature has changed nowadays as well as the way of thinking. We are on the road of losing our concentration, awareness and serious thinking abilities. We are faced with such negative effects as cyber bullying and Internet manipulations. I think it is not the direction we should move on.
Technology and Literacy
According to Eric Havelock, “Greek literacy changed not only the means of communication, but also the shape of the Greek consciousness. The Greek story is self-contained, yet the crisis in the communication which it describes as taking place in antiquity acquires a larger dimension when measured against what appears to be a similar crisis in modernity” (17). In developing his conviction, Havelock focuses on the works of Homer and Hesiod:
As written, there is no previous recorded preparation for them. Virgil, Dante, Milton had their predecessors.
Our minds have changed from being able to focus and read a lengthy paper, to distracted and skimming for the little highlights to give us information. Media used to be lengthy pages full of information. Now it has turned into short snippets of the bold points in the articles, “Television programs add text crawls and pop-up ads, and magazines and newspapers shorten their articles, introduce capsule summaries, and crowd their pages with easy-to-browse info-snippets” (Carr 5). Media has played on our short attention span and constantly wondering mind by adding bright colors and bold prints to the many stories all around us. The days of one-page articles are over. Now one page turns into five to ten links, three sub-links, and twenty other sidebars.
In Hamlet on the Holodeck, Janet Murray argues that we live in an age of electronic incubabula. Noting that it took fifty years after the invention of the printing press to establish the conventions of the printed book, she writes, "The garish videogames and tangled Web sites of the current digital environment are part of a similar period of technical evolution, part of a similar struggle for the conventions of coherent communication" (28). Although I disagree in various ways with her vision of where electronic narrative is going, it does seem likely that in twenty years, or fifty, certain things will be obvious about electronic narrative that those of us who are working in the field today simply do not see. Alongside the obvious drawbacks--forget marble and gilded monuments, it would be nice for a work to outlast the average Yugo--are some advantages, not the least of which is what Michael Joyce calls "the momentary advantage of our awkwardness": we have an opportunity to see our interactions with electronic media before they become as transparent as our interactions with print media have become. The particular interaction I want to look at today is the interaction of technology and imagination. If computer media do nothing else, they surely offer the imagination new opportunities; indeed, the past ten years of electronic writing has been an era of extraordinary technical innovation. Yet this is also, again, an age of incubabula, of awkwardness. My question today is, what can we say about this awkwardness, insofar as it pertains to the interaction of technology and the imagination?
In today’s world, people are no longer confined to reading print books. Many people are embracing the digital world they live in by accessing reading materials through electronic devices. Over the last couple of years, e-reading capabilities have shifted to become available through devices like smart phones, tablets, computers, and e-book readers. While many individuals have noted the physical differences between reading print versus reading electronically, few have studied if the use of e-readers alters the manner in which material is read. Without the consideration of these effects, many schools have begun using electronic reading devices in the classroom as a substitute for print books. Therefore, it is important that the effects of e-reader usage on their ability to understand or comprehend literature be studied, in order to afford today’s children, the internet generation, the best opportunities for success in literacy.
...wan believes, one of the best things about our digital lives is the ease with which we can share ideas with others. It is now possible for readers to connect with each other worldwide, as well as recommend and share their opinions about a particular piece of literature. Our need to engage in “deep reading” will not go away, as Rosen believes. The act of how we read may evolve as it has been evolving since beginning of mankind. How we read and write has evolved from cave walls to stone tablets to paper to keyboards. The digital world will not change what we read, but how we read. Because the experience of reading, the love of narrative, and cravings for story-telling is instilled into our DNA. Reading is a basic human need, it is evolutionary. Even though our means of attaining information or story telling may change, the act of reading is literally forever-lasting.