Again, to understand a crisis it is better for us to work as a group to guarantee that all the aspects are recognized. Next, we need to shield ourselves from becoming too rigid in our thinking; because this will prevent creative ideas. We must anticipate the effects brought on by the crisis and have plans on how to manage them before they even arise. Knowing what you are going to do also brings a sense of calm which increases our chances of success. Innovative thinking gives us an edge when it comes to decision making as well – because when we can foresee the effects of our decisions we have more confidence in making them.
Therefore, a morally right action is one that produces a good outcome or result and the ends justify the means. This would mean that a consequentialist person would make their ethical decisions based on costs and benefits, so the morally right action is one of the best overall consequences. The benefits of this approach are that you have to take into consideration all alternatives and think about what consequences will follow your actions. Like deontology, there are problems with having a fully consequential ethical view. It is important to note that with the positives there are also problems that can arise with this point of view.
This is due to universal communication methods, which have helped us to predict how someone will respond. However, this could be a disadvantage. From these universal communication methods, you are expecting a certain reaction, but may receive another that doesn’t correspond with universal norms. Leaving you with even more uncertainty about a person or even hurt feelings. The uncertainty reduction theory is a well rounded theory.
The basis of morality in utilitarianism is empirical, where shared experience helps determine what is the best way for society to act. The consequences of an action give you that experience. When faced with a decision, one should examine what the consequences of acting a certain way would be. In the case that the consequences benefit the greater good, than that is the course you should take. However, if the consequences of an action are bad, then you know that you should not take that route.
Similarly, the Law of Averages states that groups will predict the correct outcome after a series of trial and error, which supports Surowiecki’s ideas. Even though working in a group might provide better solutions in some situations, many characteristics can hinder that group’s success. More importantly, in order for any group to come to collectively wise decisions, some knowledge is one of the necessary characteristics needed amongst its members. Another key factor that has sometimes contributed to the success of a group’s answer would be the fact that they may sometimes rely on a single individual to guide the group in the right direction to achieve results (30). Overall, no matter how brilliant a single individual maybe, large groups of people actually turn out to be smarter than a select few.
Decision making can be difficult if there are internal and external factors influencing it. It can be enhanced by practising which improves results. Therefore, decision making is an important process that assist teams in achieving their objectives.
When we look at an investment opportunity it is important to recognize the “gut” feeling as our initial response but not necessarily the right response. Being aware of this can help avoid falling into an optimist bias and poorly budgeting for the future. An important question that must be asked is do we need to be completely rational always? Kahneman made clear how our System 1 can lead to bad decisions and poor planning. Yet it seems that our cognitive processes evolved in a way to protect us from aspects of reality.
Thinking about the virtuous agent will help us apply our virtues correctly and come to the best possible decision. Although we may not have the right decision, a virtuous agent will use his experience and knowledge of the virtues to guide us. The virtuous agent will correctly apply the virtues and pick actions better than we can. For example take kindness, an average person might act kindly in a scenario and think they are acting right. It may seem like kindness, but a virtuous agent might foresee future problems and advise us not to act that way.
Another positive of a risk assessment is that there would be a low risk of incident that would happen in the event, because I was able to identify the problems and hazards which then there would be precaution taken to control the risk. Another advantage is that once you identify the hazard, you are able to control the hazard, and then eliminate it, this prevent any accident or incident happening. The negatives of a risk assessment are if you missed any risk this can be dangerous as you may have not identified the most important hazards, this can lead to a dangerous environment because you wouldn’t know how to control
Utilitarianism is best implemented as a tool for leaders and decision makers. It can provide simple, fast solutions when applied to a variety of problems. When used as a supplement to analyze issues and reactions, it can provide a clearer answer. However, when used alone, there are flaws that arise in certain circumstances. Other forms of moral judgment should be consulted in some serious cases.