Intelligence Testing Essay

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Intelligence Testing and its Various Aspects Intelligence testing is a highly controversial subject that involves both social and scientific issues. When the measuring of intelligence initially began during the early 20th century, psychologists used Charles Spearman’s theory to test an individual’s general intelligence (g factor) as well as their specific intelligence (s factor). Several issues arose due to this form of intelligence testing. It was quickly realized that it is very difficult to test every individual in a similar manner and “that Spearman had oversimplified the concept of intelligence” (Ciccarelli & White, 2014, p. 274). Howard Gardner proposed that there are nine different intelligences, which each took into account a variety…show more content…
Each individual contains their unique abilities and aptitudes that are not always considered. It is obvious that “each person manifests various degrees of attributes, such as creativity, common sense, and emotional sensitivity, which are generally not sampled in standard intelligence tests” (Kylonnen & Gitomer, 2002). Based on Howard Gardner’s Nine Intelligences, one of the various forms of intelligence may be more prominent than another. He understood that humans are multifaceted and unique. This can be observed in the variety of careers that people chose to pursue. For example, a news anchor will exhibit a verbal or linguistic form of intelligence. On the other hand an engineer may described as more logically or mathematically intelligent. A standard intelligence test would not accurately measure each individual’s level of intelligence. Tests such as Wechsler test and Binet’s mental ability test have been created in order to measure the intelligence of specific age groups. Wechsler’s test was designed to measure adult IQ’s while Binet’s test measures a child’s IQ. Psychologists have constructed specific tests that are able to address attributes and abilities that are not acknowledged in a standard intelligence…show more content…
There are certain individuals whose level of intelligence may be negatively affected by their genetic makeup, which causes people to believe that intelligence testing is in fact unfair. There are individuals who are intellectually disabled that are categorized as mild, moderate, severe, and profound which is measured by their ability to support their needs. Some of these issues are caused by chromosomal or genetic disorders which cannot be helped. There are also individuals who are especially gifted in certain areas of intelligence and they make up less than 1% of the population. In 1921, Lewis M. Terman chose 1,528 children, 857 boys and 671 girls, and studied each of their intelligence levels. What he found is that each child that exhibited giftedness did in fact lack in some other form of intelligence. An individual’s “genetic endowment contributes significantly to individual differences in intelligence as measured by tests” (“Genetics and Society”, 2007). Genetic makeup contributes significantly to an individual’s level of
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