An example of a governmental system that has held these functions in high regard and has remained steadfast is Tibet before the Chinese occupation in 1950, with the integration Buddhism into a political system where the head of state is a religious figure, the position of Dalai Lama. Many have debated and criticized the mixture of religion and government but Tibet is an exception to the rule and these sentiments. There are many different factors that led to the stabilization and prosperity of the Tibetan state before the Chinese communist occupation in 1950. Most fundamentally, the integration of religion in a political system is maintained only in a society where the priesthood is seen as the highest general position and where membership in the profession is rigidly controlled by the priestly guild itself. This aw... ... middle of paper ... ..., 1979.
Consequently, although Buddhism was adopted early in these two countries, Buddhism could not impact deeply Koguryŏ and Paekche on their political structures. Although the official approval of Buddhism in Silla was the latest amongst the Three Kingdoms, it was most successfully implemented into the society. In fact the unofficial arrival of Bu... ... middle of paper ... ...hical, focused solely on accumulation of wealth and power. This resulted in the oversized Buddhist establishment which brought inordinate monastery construction which was completely unnecessary. Thus Buddhist monasteries influenced throughout the country .
Buddhism worked its way into the court and decision makers of the Chinese state and that was the major sticking point for the religion in China. For Buddhism to be accepted the Emperor would have to condone it and at least offer his acceptance of it. Without imperial approval the religion was doomed to failure in such a regimented and centrally controlled state, of course some would practice it under threat of legal action because of faith but as a whole it would not prosper. To understand the level of acceptance of Buddhism within China, one must look at each class individually and see how widely practised it was by each class. This is due to the emphasis there was on class and how any single act, religion included, could be restricted to a single class as its base of power.
The community was only unified under the leadership of Songtsen Gampo. Due to a lack of cohesion within the previous community Buddhism had to pull in culture from the strong surrounding countries, India and China. Once Buddhism adapted Indian culture it not only gained power within Buddhism but also gave a great amount of cohesion to the country.
The Indians fell back on their age old Hindu practices and caste system. The Ming Chinese were influenced to practice conservatism and upholding original Confucian Ideals by their Emperor. The Edo Japanese upheld the Imperial tradition of having an Emperor as well as secluding themselves from foreigners to protect their customs from Western cultural corrosion. The first wave of Europeans to reach Asia did not manage to influence much of these civilizations since they already had a proper, formalized government and hundreds even thousands of years of culture. Therefore, Asian civilizations from 1500 to 1700 were generally traditionalistic.
The Chinese has instituted a policy that all reincarnations must be filed and approved by the government and not within the Buddhist which has always been the traditions. While the Chinese government is attempting to modernize the Tibetan culture, the Chinese government should not be allowed to place government personal in charge of monasteries because the control affects the schools of teaching that were once more prevalent in the Tibetan culture, it is effecting the culture of Tibetan Buddhism including limiting important religious figure heads from being able to reincarnate without government approval. The reincarnation system, a distinctive characteristic of Buddhism more especially that practiced in Tibet, is based the concept that Buddha's soul never vanishes, but reincarnates in succession to lead his followers and to complete his unfinished work (Maguire, 2001). Said to be the first reincarnation among the Buddhist monks in Tibet is Karma Pakshi. In 1193, before Dusum Chenpa, the first Karmapa of Tibetan Buddhism, passed away, he told his believers that he would return as... ... middle of paper ... ...lling a larger animal such as a goat.
In order to understand the political factors that influence both of these book; you need to get a background information on why China and Tibet have such animosity against each other. Tibet considers itself a free nation without any ties to China. It states that “Tibet declared itself an independent republic in 1912.Although its status did not receive widespread recognition, Tibet functioned as an independent government until China sent troops to Tibet in 1950” (BBC News). The Tibetans feel as though their freedom is being retained and they are being dictated by China which they did not approve of. China claims that Tibet proposers better with them leadin... ... middle of paper ... ...an.
The Dalai Lamas were the most powerful figures in Tibet before the Chinese incursions, but the powers they had were limited, their primary concern was to spread Buddhism and they had little involvement in the everyday lives of their people. Also, the fifth Dalai Lama has the reputation of a successful political who unified the country. Lately, the 14th Dalai Lama said that he has the right to retire from his role as political president and that Tibetan should be free to choose their next president. (Waterhouse, 2008, p.206-215). Finally, according to the Dalai Lama’s noble prize acceptance speech in 1989 he sees himself just a human being who happens to be Tibetan and choses to be “a monk and no one special”.
One difference between Taizong’s advice and Al Mawardi’s ideas is the fact that in the Tang Dynasty there was Confucianism within the government, it was the examination system. To become part of the Tang Dynasty government, one must pass a Confucian based test. If one does pass the test they become part of the government. “Those with low intelligence or capability should not be entrusted with heavy tasks or responsibilities. If the right person is given the right task, the government can be governed with ease.
Chiang... ... middle of paper ... ...ng was able to bring democracy and set a path for the country to successful as it progresses. Chiang Kai Shek is remarkable figure that had left a great legacy for the people to learn from. Scholars may criticize and be oppose of Chiang’s tactics and views, but he should not be the one to be blamed for everything that had happened in China. As of failing to take hold of all China during the civil war, it was partly because United States decided to stop providing support to the nationalist party and gave up on the civil war. He should be remembered as the leader who fought out the warlords and unified China.