The method of teaching depends on the nature of the subject, and the tact of the teacher. This essay is aimed at assessing teaching methods and strategies used in schools and discuss innovations that should take place to make them more effective and learner centred. Brandes and Ginnis (1996:167) acknowledge that the movement from established well-known ground to explore new teaching strategies is a tough challenge to teachers. In a classroom, a teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, instructional objectives and an outline of planned tactics, necessary to implement the strategies. Reece and Walker (2002) describe a teaching strategy as a combination of student activities supported by the use of appropriate resources to provide particular learning resources.
Principles of learning identify specific factors that consistently influence learning and describe the particular effects that these factors have. Studies have shown given the same piece of information, individuals interpret it differently and learn it at different rates through different methods. Thus, the challenge of effective instruction is not only delivering the desired instruction, but in a way that learners of various background, skills, and experiences can take that learning into their personal world of knowledge and make it their own. By addressing the fundamental concern of instructional design and incorporating learning theories to support the process of learning, Robert Gagné's instructional design theory has emerged as a primary model used for effective instructional design. This paper will outline Gagné's instructional design theory and provide information on how it is applied to instructional technology.
et al (1990:81). The fact that the curriculum is ¡¥a relatively fixed track or terrain (learning content) which must be covered (mastered) by the participant (learner) in order to reach the winning-post (learning result).¡¦ Based on this literal meaning, attempts to clarify what the curriculum is have led to the following definitions: „X A programme of study „X Course content „X Planned learning experiences „X Intended learning outcomes „X A plan for instruction According to Graham-Jolly, M. (2000:3), these definitions are narrow interpretations of the curriculum since ¡Kthe term is often used to refer to the formal academic programme provided by a school, as reflected in subjects on the timetable,,,it might also be used to refer to a particular course of instruction or syllabus. The focus here is, in the main, on didactic activities as they occur within the classroom situation. The latest trend, however, places emphasis on a broader and more inclusive interpretation of the concept, which takes into cognisance the social, political, economic and historical contexts within which the curriculum is designed, developed and implemented. Lubisi, C et al (... ... middle of paper ... ...dequately addressed in an essay of this nature.
A Comparison of Career and Technical Education Philosophies Before we began to compare career and technical education philosophies we must first determine, what is philosophy of education and how is it important to our school system, teachers, and students? The result from my research has determined philosophy of education can be summed up as beliefs that influences how and what students are taught. Philosophy of education is the tool used to acknowledge and answer questions as it pertains to the purpose of schooling, the role of the teacher as well as the method in which it is taught. My research will illustrate how teacher-centered philosophies of education differ from student-centered philosophies of education. Teachers tend to emphasize
To define curriculum leadership, one should first have a working definition of curriculum. According to Marsh and Willis (2007), curriculum is usually regarded to mean a program of instruction at a school including both the planned and unplanned events in the classroom (pp.16, 375). Curriculum has three basic focal points: the nature of the individual, the nature society, and the nature of a subject (P. Brown, CIED 5053 lecture notes, August 28, 2006). Looking at these definitions, one could come up with several different meanings for curriculum leadership. A curriculum leader could be the principal at a school who guides the teaching and learning at his or her school or could be the department head that plans the course of study for a subject.
Effective Teaching: Paper Presented at the North West Region Inaugural Special Education Conference Prioritries, Partnerships (and Pulm Puddings). Armidle. Ysseldyke, J. E., & Salvia, J. (1988). Assessment in Special and Remedial Education (4th ed.).
Schug and Cross argue that during curriculum integration important areas of the curriculum are simply left out or not presented well during integration leading to fewer learning opportunities. Curriculum integration is a way of organizing the knowledge and skills that we wish for children to learn, but as teachers we need to be sure that the learning is meeting outcomes from all the learning areas included.
Traditionally, curriculum is defined or recognized as the sum of information, facts, concepts, ideas, and experiences that is delivered to students by teachers. But, the modern concept of curriculum is different from the traditional concept because curriculum definition is developed due to several reasons such as cultural changes resulting from scientific and technical development, the change in the objectives of education and the nature of the curriculum itself affected by students, environment, cultures, society, and theories... ... middle of paper ... ...hips with others. On the other hand, overt curriculum is the written or the official curriculum which it “gives the basic lesson plan to be followed” in the classroom. Furthermore, the overt curriculum provides the students with science, mathematics, literature, and social studies. Many educators define this type of curriculum as subject matter curriculum.
David Merrill’s Component Display Theory Introduction David Merrill’s Component Display Theory is based primarily on the same assumptions as Robert Gagne’s Events of Instruction. They both agree that different types of learning require different types of procedures for teaching as well as different types of assessment means. However, the component display theory is primarily concerned with teaching individual concepts and arranges instruction to provide learner control (Braxton, Bronico, and Looms, 1). What is the Component Display Theory? The component display theory is design strategy for designing instruction.
Educators refer curriculum as an organized framework, which consists details of what children are going to learn, how and when teaching and learning occurs. The terms curriculum and syllabus are widely used and mean different things to British and American writers. As a result of this difference, people are often led to getting them confused as having the same meaning. The meanings of these terms are simple once they are explained clearly, the term “curriculum” refers to the total content that is aimed to be taught within the school or educational system. The term “syllabus” on the other hand, refers to the content of an individual course.