Innovative Field in Computer Science Research is Wireless Sensor Networks

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Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have emerged as one of the most exciting and innovative fields in Computer Science research over the past few years. Processors with on-board sensors nearing the size of a dust are now being developed. WSNs are a trend of the last few years due to the advances made in wireless communication and information technologies along with electronics field. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is basically a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. Some of the available standards include 2.4 GHz radios based on either IEEE 802.15.4[low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs)] or IEEE 802.11 [wireless local area network (WLAN)] standards or proprietary radios, which are usually 900 MHz. The emergence of wireless sensor networks in the recent years can be characterized by the amount of research papers published relating to the field, which is enormous. The research papers also characterize the difficulty faced by researchers in selecting appropriate techniques to evaluate their work. The development of multifunctional sensors which have low-cost, low-power, has received increasing attention from various industries. WSN is a wireless network composed of autonomous and compact devices called sensor nodes or motes. A sensor network is designed to detect a phenomenon, collect and process data about the phenomena and transmit this sensed information to the required users. Sensor nodes or motes in WSNs are very small sized and are capable of not only sensing and gathering the data but are also capable of processing the data while communicating with other connected nodes in the network, via radio frequency (RF) channel... ... middle of paper ... ... source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. A sensor node can vary in size from that of a shoebox down to the size of a grain of dust, although functioning "motes" of genuine microscopic dimensions have not yet been created. The cost of sensor nodes is also variable. This cost can range from a few to thousands of rupees, depending on the complexity of the individual sensor nodes to as cheap as less than a hundred. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, computational speed, amount of memory, and communications bandwidth to name a few. The topology of the Wireless Sensor Networks can also be varied from a simple mesh or star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network. The propagation technique between the hops of the network can be many such as routing or flooding.

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