In the Merriam Webster dictionary, infanticide is a term described as the act of killing an infant. Other sources describe it as the act of killing one’s own child, or killing of a child less than 12 months old. Female infanticide is more common than the killing of male offspring. More often than not, it is the mother who does the killing.
Infanticide has been recorded as far back as the ancient world, where they would abandon the infant by leaving it die to die of hunger, thirst, animal attack, or hypothermia. In some cultures they would drown the infants, and some used infants as sacrifices. Carthagians would sacrifice their infants to gods. Charred remains have been found in Charthagian archeological sites. Approximately 20,000 urns were found with the charred remains of infants. Interestingly, in ancient Egypt it was forbidden to kill infants. There are no records of infanticide in ancient Egyptian households.
Ancient Greeks did not believe in sacrifice for either a child or an adult, however, they practiced exposure of newborns. This meant that if someone wanted to get rid of an infant, they would leave it to be “rescued by the gods” or a passerby. Inevitably, the child would die from exposure to the elements, get eaten by an animal, or starve to death.
Infanticide has increased at a greater rate in the more modern times. Some of the factors that have historically affected the infanticide rate are human sacrifice, population control, poverty, devaluation of females, birth defects, and illegitimacy.
There are various religious views and stances on the subject of infanticide. The Jews were against taking of any human life, and forbade the act of killing an infant. However, there were several instances i...
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...ecause these babies were not born in a hospital. Another interesting fact is that mothers are usually the ones who kill their newborns during the first week of life, but after that it is usually the father who commits the act.
The reasons that a parent would choose to kill their infant are many, depending on where they live, economic status, psychological condition, etc… Prevention and awareness are the keys in helping to decrease the numbers of innocent babies and children dying at the hands of their parent(s).
Explains that infanticide is a term used in the merriam webster dictionary. it is the act of killing one’s own child, or killing children less than 12 months old.
Explains infanticide has been recorded as far back as the ancient world, where they would abandon the infant by leaving it die of hunger, thirst, animal attack, or hypothermia.
Explains that ancient greeks did not believe in sacrifice for either a child or an adult, but they practiced exposure of newborns. if someone wanted to get rid of an infant, they would leave it to be "rescued by the gods."
Explains that infanticide has increased at a greater rate in the more modern times due to human sacrifice, population control, poverty, devaluation of females, birth defects, and illegitimacy.
Explains that there are various religious views and stances on the subject of infanticide. jews were against taking of any human life, and forbade the act of killing an infant.
Explains that early christians practiced infanticide by exposing unwanted female infants. church fathers warned against this because they believed that children exposed were more likely to be victims of incest and/or become prostitutes
Explains that female infanticide has been accepted for centuries in many countries, and is more prominent in india and china than in any other country around the world.
Explains infanticide occurs mostly in the poor, rural populations of india. males are considered to be a source of income, and daughters are believed to cause economic burdens because of the high cost of weddings and dowries.
Explains that ultrasound during pregnancy has decreased infanticide, but it has increased the number of abortions. in 1984, unicef reported that 7,999 of the 8,000 aborted female fetuses took place in bombay, india.
Explains that infanticide is not uncommon in china. the people's republic of china has a one-child policy to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems and provide population control.
Explains that gender-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in china, but these killings continue.
Explains that some women in china give birth to their child in secret, and do not officially register their female child. this causes other problems, as if the female does not legally exist, it is hard for her to go to school.
Reports that 95% of orphanages in china are filled with "able-bodied" females, and the other 5% are physically or developmentally disabled boys.
Explains that president obama met with hu jintao in a joint press conference on january 19, 2011.
Explains that the chinese government has enacted the marriage law and women's protection law. these laws prohibit female infanticide, discrimination against women who give birth to female babies, and the use of ultrasound and other technologies to determine the sex of the baby.
Opines that infanticide is not only committed in low-income nations, but also in the united states, where women kill their newborns.
Explains that in 1983, over six hundred children were killed by their parents in the u.s. the vast majority of infant deaths are female babies.
Explains that texas state representative jessica farrar introduced legislation that would define infanticide as a distinct and lesser crime than homicide.
Opines that the legalization of abortion in the united states has caused a decrease in infanticide, but there are still women killing their newborns.
Explains that the risk of homicide decreases as a child gets older. the most frequent victims of these fatalities are children under the age of five.
Opines that prevention and awareness are the keys in helping to decrease the number of innocent babies and children dying at the hands of their parents.
Infanticide is not unique to humans. It is practiced by many mammals including some primates. The main difference between human and animal infanticide is that infanticide in humans is performed by the parent(s) of the child while in the case of animals it is usually a male suitor (Caldwell and Caldwell, 2005, p. 208). In pre-modern societies infanticide was done instead of abortions as it allowed for sexual selection, it was much more effective than pre-modern contraception, and it did not require any special skills or esoteric knowledge (Caldwell and Caldwell,2005, p. 205). Infanticide has a history as a method of population control. It is more frequent to throw away girl babies. This may be because of dowries or other cultural reasons. Infanticide seems to occur primarily when it aids one parent, both parents or additional children to survive better or if when the infant has little chance of survival.
In this essay, the author
Explains the biological reasons for infanticide, especially in countries that lack full medical or prenatal care. in india, infants with deformities or twinships are often killed for the well-being of the family.
Explains that cultural factors play a role in isolation and lack of kin support, relationship difficulties, and paternal support. infanticide is higher when women do not have economic resources or support of the father.
Explains the various culturally defined causes of infanticide, such as cultural traditions, preferred gender, or illegitamite children. parents in hunter-gather societies space children and adjust women's workload.
Explains that cultural traditions may play a factor in birth spacing. infanticide is used to control the size and composition of the family.
Explains that infanticide is present cross-culturally based on biological, economic, and cultural factors.
Explains that infanticide is not unique to humans. it is practiced by many mammals including some primates.
Explains that infanticide occurs in societies where women lack ample resources to raise two children at once. disadvantages for female infants are strongly related to their economic worth.
Explains that dowries, arranged marriage, inferior status of women, and a caste system may lead to gender specific infanticide.
Cites biggs, m antonia, gould, heather, foster, diana greene, and cashdan, elizabeth a.
In this paper I will try to explain some of the differences and similarities that occur in both human and chimpanzee cultures concerning infanticide. I will first explain some of the reasons that chimpanzees practice infanticide and share a few examples of such. Then, I will do the same for human cultures which may not be as prominent as we believe but is still happening. Finally, I will compare the similarities and differences between the two, and show how chimpanzees and humans may not be that different after all in this regard.
In this essay, the author
Explains the differences and similarities that occur in both human and chimpanzee cultures regarding infanticide.
Explains that chimpanzees react to infanticide in ways that may seem surprising to us.
Explains that infanticide is more prevalent than most people think. it occurs when parents and doctors stop treatment and/or food supplies to young infants to cause their deaths.
Compares the practice of infanticide between chimpanzees and humans, stating that there is no prevalence for either males or females committing the act.
Opines that humans and chimpanzees are similar in infanticide, and that people blame it on different cultures and claim that they are better than them.
High infant mortality rate is a global dilemma, but with ongoing research and medical discoveries, high infant mortality rates may lower or completely diminish. There are several causes of infant mortality such as: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, respiratory failure and traumatic stress. Several technologies have been developed to reduce the infant mortality rate. The artificial placenta, hypothermia therapy, stress therapy are technologies/techniques that may help alleviate the infant mortality rate. Case studies have been performed to further explore the impact that these medical breakthroughs may have on the infant mortality rate on a global scale. Research performed by Duke University, McMaster University, and Stanford University has also
In this essay, the author
Explains the medical conditions that cause infant mortality, such as hypercapnia, hypoxemia, hyperxic-ischemic encephalopathy, respiratory failure, and traumatic stress disorder.
Explains that ronald goldberg and michael cotten lead collaborations with the nichd neonatal research network regarding epidemiologic infectious disease, necrotizing enterocolitis and brain injury.
Explains the causes of infant mortality, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, respiratory failure, and traumatic stress.
Explains that dr. fusch assisted in developing an artificial placenta that acts as a miniature extracorporeal lung assist device.
Someone should be prosecuted for murdering a unborn child. Someone should be prosecuted for murdering a unborn child,It goes against the laws of nature.There are also laws protecting the life of an unborn child, the unnatural removal of the child can do physical
In this essay, the author
Explains that scott peterson was convicted in 2004 of murdering his wife, laci, and their unborn son, conner, in 2002.
States that the unborn victims act, passed by president bush in 2004, institutes a separate charge for killing or harming an unborn child during an assault on the mother.
Analyzes how michelle wilkins was attacked by dynel lane as she cut into her uterus and removed her unborn child. the state of colorado does not uphold the unborn victims of violence act.
Explains that the human brain is interesting, but it can do many horrible things, such as damage to the psyche after a frightening or distressing event. michelle mcclurg argues that emotional trauma can be overcome with therapy and therapetic methods
Opines that someone should be prosecuted for murdering an unborn child, as it goes against the laws of nature. scott peterson was rightfully charged for the murder of his son conner.
Recommends using the laci peterson case as evidence for solving your cerr. they state that citing your sources is important, as it violates the laws of nature.
Infant Mortality in the United States
Trends in infant mortality are considered to be a
barometer of technology and an accurate indicator of the
health of a society. Despite technological excellence and
numerous social programs offered throughout the country, the
infant mortality rate (IMR) in the United States continues to
be a national concern. For many, “infant mortality” brings
to mind the deprivation and poverty found in third world
countries. Yet in the United States, nearly 40,000 children
die every year for some of the same reasons that cause
infant death in underdeveloped parts of the world
In this essay, the author
Explains that the imr in the united states has dropped almost 66 percent over the past three decades.
Explains that the us infant mortality rate in 1987 was higher than in 23 other countries.
Opines that the decrease in infant death is a valid picture of society if considered on statistical merit.
Analyzes how nicholas eberstadt of the harvard center for population and development studies points to what is principally a parental problem.
Describes the ten leading causes of infant mortality in 1992: birth defects, sudden infant death syndrome, preterm/low birthweight, respiratory distress syndrome (rds), maternal complications of pregnancy, complications during birth.
Explains that advances in prenatal care for high-risk pregnancies have provided more effective preventative strategies and better treatment of neonatal.
Explains that birth defects accounted for 7,449 infant deaths (183.2 per 100,000 live births) and sids, for 120.3 deaths per year.
Concludes that the behavior of the biological mother and father before and after the child's birth leads to the following conclusion.
Explains that an infant that has been abused gestationally throughout pregnancy poses a variety of problems that increases the likelihood of abuse.
Explains that reducing high-risk pregnancies can only be achieved through education and prenatal care.
Explains that resources, education, and care in the home (reach) is an interagency program implemented in chicago to reduce preventable causes of death among infants at risk due to social factors.
Explains that health monitoring plus individualized teaching helped mothers maintain good health practices and identify illnesses early.
Explains that the study demonstrates a need for more intensive services following the 1000 live births in communities where rates for nonparticipants ranged from 5.2 to 10.9 per 100.
Advises that prenatal care should begin within the first trimester of pregnancy. low-income women are deterred by circumstances ranging from cost.
Explains that self-worth is observed in women who do not seek prenatal care. margaret gallen, director of nurse midwifery services at d.c.
Opines that the lack of universal health care for pregnant women and insufficient maternity leave policies depict a government that doesn't truly value motherhood.
Opines that prenatal and infant care should only be sought by women who have enough maternal instinct.
Cites anderson, g., dying young: infant mortality in the united states.
Evaluates an interagency home visiting program to reduce postneonatal mortality in disadvantaged communities.
Opines that the committee's chairperson acknowledged statistical improvements over the prior two decades, but he was critical of the united states' decline in the international ranking.
Opines that improving existing social programs and implementing new programs to combat infant mortality must continue.
Explains that illnesses can be identified in the early, treatable stages of development by educated individuals. these programs lead the fight against infant mortality by educating families about infant care.
Opines that infant mortality will continue to plague this country without the quality of prenatal care that the child deserves. the government must increase the funds available to established and new programs to reach expectant mothers.
Cites the march of dimes birth defects foundation's national and regional profile. the milbank quarterly vol.
According to the UNICEF report in just 2006, studies disclosed that 10 million young girls were killed either before they were born or promptly after by their parents in the year of 1986 (which is not that long ago if you put that number into perspective). But why would anyone want to deliberately kill an innocent soul, let alone their own child? Female Infanticide and Gendercide is defined as the conscious killing of female, newborn babies which can happen from getting killed by their own blood or by an abortion. Even though acts as these are illegal, we still see this is a persistent problem today mainly in the cultures of China and India.
In this essay, the author
Explains that female infanticide and gendercide is defined as the conscious killing of female, newborn babies from getting killed by their own blood or by an abortion.
Opines that india's government outlawed the concept of dowries in 1961 when they slowly realized that this is a problem.
Explains that many people may question and want a better explanation as to why something like this is so reoccurring. china's one-child policy prohibits couples from having one child.
Opines that if the current trend goes unchecked, women will become an "endangered" sex in china and india.
Although abortion was not a big issue at the time, infanticide, or killing the baby outside the womb after delivery, was a prominent subject of debate, much like abortion is today (1). At the time, this seemed to be a safer way to deal with an unwanted pregnancy. Both Hippocrates, the “father of modern medicine” and Soranos, the “Greatest of the ancient gynecologist,” both opposed abortion, but their reasons for opposition are unclear and could have been for either the protection of the mother or the fetus (1). The more sophisticated medical methods for abortions became, the more they were met with cr...
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the bible is silent on abortion, which is of no support to christian groups, especially catholics, who believe that abortion is a mortal sin.
Explains that infanticide, or killing the baby outside the womb after delivery, was a prominent topic of debate at the time. hippocrates and soranos opposed abortion, but their reasons for opposition are unclear.
Explains that abortion causes the debate over whether abortion is morally acceptable. some believed human personhood began at conception, while others believed in the aristotelian concept that life began 40 to 80 days after conception.
Opines that abortion is one of the most fundamental and perplexing issues in christianity. the doctrines of christianity on both creation and redemption hold favor in both preserving life and enhancing its quality.
Compares christianity and judaism, stating that abortions can be justified in cases of rape, incest, or extreme health risks to the woman.
Explains that conservative, reconstructionist and reform jews are formally opposed to government regulation of abortion. orthodox authorities agree with this stance.
Disagrees with the catholic policy on abortion. they believe that a woman should be allowed to have an abortion without the fear of discrimination or harm to her.
Opines that if a woman gets pregnant due to irresponsibility, has the baby, and cannot support it, what does the child hope for?
Describes the works of james f. childress and john macquarrie in the westminster dictionary ofchristian ethics.
Rape is among the more horrific violations of human dignity imaginable. It is a crime committed by the male, not the female—and certainly not by the child it might produce. When rape results in pregnancy, the baby has the same right to life as any child born by mutually loving parents. Only the Nazis would execute a child for the crimes of his or her father.
In this essay, the author
Explains that abortion is the most frequently performed medical procedure in the united states. american physicians perform about two abortions every minute of every hour.
Explains that abortion became legal in 1973, because of the court case of roe vs. wade. the debate to keep it legal or have it illegal is divided into proponents and opponents.
Explains that pro-choice proponents believe abortion is a woman's right that shouldn't be questioned. the case of roe v. wade helped them understand why abortion became legal.
Believes that pregnant women have the right to abort because they might not want or not be ready for a baby and that would lead to neglect.
Opines that an abortion is necessary because a baby might not be able to survive in the real world.
Opines that the us government believes that unborn babies are human beings, which made them change their perspective on abortion.
Explains that the case of planned parenthood v. casey is a great ethical example.
Explains that parental consent laws reduce the minor abortion rate by 18.7 percent. with the loving support of their parents, many young women are able to bring their babies into the world without the physical risks and emotional devastation that abortions can bring.
Agrees with pro-life that rape is not a justification to have an abortion.
Opines that rape is among the most horrific violations of human dignity imaginable.
Explains that abortion ends the life of a fetus, but one must refute the notion that women don't have the right to make decisions on their own body. contraception is an effective method to prevent pregnancies.
For many people today, adoption is a way to create a family. For others, adoption helps to expand a family. Adoptions in ancient times, however, were not conducted in the interests of children. In fact, quite the opposite is true. Orphaned or abandoned children often became slaves.
In this essay, the author
Explains that international adoption has become prevalent in the united states, providing homes to children orphaned by disease, war, poverty, and in china, a national policy that permits couples to have only one child.
Opines that adoptions in ancient times were not conducted in the interests of children, since orphaned or abandoned children became slaves. roman emperors, hadrian and marcus aurelius, were adopted.
Explains that informal adoptions were the norm until the 1850s, when the number of orphans exploded amid the civil war and as immigration increased.
Explains that the demand for healthy infants increased after world war i, due to the sharp drop in population caused by the war, the influenza epidemic, and the development of a successful feeding formula.
...man soldiers use infants and babies as targets for machine guns. These Jewish babies were tossed into the air and used as target practice for the German machine gunners. The soldiers were never told to do this; they chose to. They made their own personal choice to kill the babies. It is natural instinct for humans to protect babies and infants. In order for the soldiers to shoot them, they had to deliberately go against their nature to kill the babies.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how human nature has been explored by so many different people. each and every human is born with the capability of making their own choices.
Analyzes how joseph stalin grew up with a brutal, abusive father and teachers that continually mocked him. he later became one of the most cruel, feared dictators in world history.
Analyzes how vick's experiences show that free will makes people evil. although he grew up in virginia, his actions related to dog fighting were further out of line than most others from newport news.
Analyzes how lord of the flies shows the boys' free will. jack is not able to kill a pig, but he puts on his mask before his successful hunt.
Analyzes how roger murdered piggy in lord of the flies. it takes physical strength, but mental strength to back it up. roger was not taught to push boulders onto people.
Analyzes how the german soldiers used infants and babies as targets for machine gunners in night. they chose to kill the babies themselves. it is natural instinct for humans to protect babies.
Analyzes how rabbi eliahu's son elie weisel made a personal decision to leave his father’s side to save himself.