Industrialism Essay

argumentative Essay
1315 words
1315 words

The Industrial Revolution of the late-18th and 19th centuries were pivotal moments in world history in which the growth of technological advances and machines made the production of materials and products more efficient and more plentiful. This changed the whole landscape of countries; cities and towns which fostered these technological changes grew bigger than ever, with citizens accumulating wealth like never before. Most importantly, the concept of capitalism spread like wildfire almost simultaneously with the spread of industrialism. Although this newfound source of wealth and a consumer-based society was seemingly a good thing, many critics have pointed out its flaws. Perhaps one of the greatest flaws of capitalism is the creation of classes based on wealth, which were the rich and the poor, also known as the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Class conflict and the exploitation between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat were main issues that were discussed. Some of the most influential writers during this time period were Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and Andrew Carnegie, who each provided a different perspective on the effects of capitalism on society. Each author provided their own ideas on how the ideal society should run, with or without capitalism. The man whose writings “most reflects and explains the character of the early Industrial Revolution” was enlightenment thinker Adam Smith (Sanders 223). To this very day, he is still referenced as one of the most important economic theorists throughout history. Through his writing in The Wealth of Nations (perhaps his biggest piece of work) in 1776, he essentially created the theory of free-market capitalism and the laissez-faire model that is still used today. In The Wealth of Nat... ... middle of paper ... ...hese workers by selling these produced goods for higher costs. Karl Marx believed that capitalists should not reap these benefits, rather the laborers should get the majority of the wealth for the goods that they produced themselves. All in all, Adam Smith, Andrew Carnegie, and Karl Marx all had their perspectives and opinions on capitalism. Each person had their views on a “perfect” and ideal society and each person had great intentions. As history played out, Marx’s communist theory did not exactly go as he thought it would pan out. Many different states had their attempts at communism, but things were not all that successful with these attempts. To this day, communist states still exist in some nations, but it is usually looked down upon by the world. On the other hand, free-market capitalist systems are still running freely, much to the dismay of the poor.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that andrew carnegie was a staunch believer in the free-market system and advocated for the social darwinist theory of survival of the fittest and self-determination.
  • Analyzes how smith and carnegie were concerned about the "proper administration of wealth", or how money was being distributed among society. they believe that the wealthy had a duty to serve the poor by investing money in trusts and public works.
  • Explains karl marx's theory and philosophy, which was coined as marxism, in his book, the communist manifesto.
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