Each student has their own interpretation and idea on what assessment is. Brown and Hirschfield (2008) defined conception as mental representations of phenomena in reality that explains complex and difficult categories of experience, such as assessment. Assessment is defined as any act of interpreting information about student performance, collected through any of multitude of means (Brown & Hirschfield, 2008). Moreover, students’ conceptions of educational processes are important because there is evidence that those conceptions have an impact on their educational experiences and learning (Brown & Hirschfield, 2008). Research has demonstrated that students learn best when the educational process is purposeful, integrated, and collaborative.
Metacognition is defined as “thinking about thinking”. Metacognition consists of two components: knowledge and regulation. Metacognitive learning includes knowledge about oneself as a learner and the factors that might impact performance, knowledge about strategies, and knowledge about when and why to use strategies. Metacognitive regulation is the monitoring of one’s cognition and includes planning activities, awareness of understanding and task performance, and assessment of the efficacy of monitoring processes and strategies. Metacognition also improves with suitable instruction, with experimental evidence supporting the notion that students can be taught to reflect on their own thinking.
Assessment is essential in the classroom to create a positive learning environment for children. The way in which assessment is used can create a positive or negative effect. When used effectively, assessment can underpin what the children need to be successful. Assessment shows where to take children with their learning (Black et al, 1998, p.216). This benefits the teacher, providing them with the children’s understanding, enabling them to plan future lessons, so that they can meet the needs of the range of learners in the class.
Inquiry based learning can be classified under the student centred approach in which the students play an active role in taking control of their own learning. This method is also claimed to be able to enhance critical thinking ability of the students (Magnussen,2000). Therefore, the role of the teachers is as a facilitator who will only provide assistance and guidance throughout the learning process. Finally, cooperative learning can be defined as a teaching method that emphasis collaborative work among students. Johnson and Johnson (1998) as cited in Felder and Brent (2007) explains that cooperative learning as an instruction that involves students working in teams to accomplish a common goal.
Through exploring multiple learning theories and reflecting on my own teaching beliefs, I have developed my own theory of learning. As I developed my theory, I wanted to consider what it takes to be a highly effective teacher. An effective teacher must have mastery of instructional strategies, classroom management, classroom curriculum design, and use assessments as feedback (Laureate Education, 2010a). By using a variety of instructional strategies, teacher’s can meet the learning styles of all the students in the classroom. Effective classroom management can lead to students feeling safe and more willing to take risks.
Teachers are expected to design promising learning environments and help students discover what they afford, what might be learned, how and why (Knight & Yorke, 2003). According to the authors (Strivens and Grant, 2000), if learners have an accurate awareness of their levels of achievement in skills, in conjunction with a desirable skill profile for a job or a range of jobs, they will be able to recognize when and where they need to improve their level of skill. It has also been
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences identifies eight different intelligence areas and their strengths in the classroom. The intelligence areas are: verbal/linguistic, mathematical/logical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Each intelligence area has a particular strength that enhance learning in that way. For example, students who have a stronger verbal/linguistic intelligence will be able to write and read well and learns best through hearing and seeing words, speaking, and debating. However, a student who has a stronger bodily/kinesthetic intelligence will have strengths in athletics, using tools, and acting and will learn best through touching, moving, sensations, and processing (Gile... ... middle of paper ... ...isciplines, but it is the method of improving their intelligences that the theory examines.
Formative assessment is a collection of practices that lead to some action that improves learning. It is the use of the information gathered, and how it is used to adjust teaching and learning that makes it formative. A study by Black and William (1998a, 1998b) revealed that the largest achievement gains used classroom discussions, classroom tasks, and homework to determine student learning and the action that would be taken to improve learning and/or correct misunderstandings, descriptive feedback with guidance, and students developing self- and peer-assessment skills. Formative assessments are a powerful tool for teachers and students alike. Some examples of formative assessment include summarizing activities, questioning, conferences, and response journals (Chappuis, 2009).
My personal learning philosophy will integrate brain-based learning. Brain-based learning strategies refer to teaching, lesson plans, and education programs to inspire creative thinking, emotional growth, and cognitive development. These strategies are a wonderful resource for students and educators alike to influence positive learning. All students are different and there are many techniques that can help nurture learning. Brain-based learning strategies facilitate collaboration, positive time management, and offer comfort and hands on experience in classrooms.
It also increases motivation for learning because it encourages responsibility, can improve cognitive and social skills, such as academic engagement, self-esteem, attitudes toward school, and strong kinship with peers. Some recommendations to use cooperative learning are: Include elements of positive interdependence and individual accountability: students are able to interact on a deep level. By using this strategy, students are responsible of their own learning, the learning of the members in their group, and the ability to demonstrate what they know, understand, and are able to do. Keep group size small: in order to have a more successful group work, groups’ size should be ... ... middle of paper ... ... telling them that everyone is responsible for his or her own learning. Give roles to each member of the group that will help accomplish the task.