Inclusion And Social Conclusion: The Complications Of Discrimination

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Defining discrimination is not an easy task. Choosing between the competing definitions of discriminations has not only been theoretical implications, but also practical implications, because the definition concludes the scope of observed inquiry and appropriate methods for identification and study of the phenomenon. Reason for that is because discrimination is typically considered something hostile to norms of fair and equal treatment in a democratic market society, there are also significant normative implications to defining discrimination. Most definitions of discrimination knot around 2 related yet distinguishable means of defining the phenomenon: intentional discrimination and dissimilar impact. Pager and Shepherd 2008 and Blank, et al.…show more content…
Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individual’s exclusion from important participation in society. An example is the exclusion of single mothers from the welfare system prior to welfare improvements of 1990s. More broadly, many women face social exclusion. Women are still marginalized from executive positions and continue to earn less than men in upper positions. Another example of individual downgrading is the exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labour…show more content…
Major contributors include race, income, employment status, social class, geographic location, personal habits and appearance, education, religion and political affiliation.
The thought of social vulnerability arose most recently within the sermon on natural hazards and disasters. To date no one definition has been agreed upon. Similarly, multiple theories of social vulnerability exist (Weichselgartner 2001). Most work conducted so far focuses on empirical observation and conceptual models. Thus current social vulnerability research is a middle range theory and represents an attempt to understand the social conditions that transform a natural hazard (e.g. flood, earthquake, mass movements etc.) into a social disaster. The idea highlights two main themes:
1. Both the causes and the phenomenon of disasters are well-defined by social processes and structures. Thus it is only a geo- or biophysical hazard, but rather the social context that is taken into account to understand “natural” disasters (Hewitt

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