According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about one-half of 1.6 million elementary school-aged children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) (Brown University Child and Adolescence Behavior Letter, 2001). The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1997) stated that ADHD affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, and boys are three times more likely to be affected by the disorder than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, and the disorder and its symptoms are chronic and pervasive (www.asha.org). In the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ADHD is categorized into three subtypes which are ADHD Predominantly Inattention Type, ADHD Predominantly Hyperactivity-Impulsive Type, and ADHD Combined Type.
Attention Deficit with hyper activity Disorder commonly known as ADHD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder usually diagnosed in childhood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. It appears to be more common in boys than it is girls. This Disorder is more common in boys than in girls and approximately five in one hundred children are affected (Busing). There are three subtypes: Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, predominantly inattentive, combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive (most children have the combined type of ADHD)(nimh.nih.gov).The age of onset of ADHD is usually in preschool to early elementary school years.
The first question needing answered is what is ADHD? ADHD is a set of behavioral problems revolving around three main symptoms. The chief symptom that a person exhibits is the incapacity to keep their attention focus. A second key symptom is impulsiveness. They may act or shout out inappropriately and have a short fuse leading to temper tantrums. A third core symptom is hyperactivity. Sufferers are unable to sit still seeming restless or fidgety. ADHD symptoms may also cause problems in educational settings for children and also problems at work for adults.
"There are three broad sets of symptoms associated with ADHD: inattention and distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity;" however, it is not necessary to have symptoms from all three of these areas to be diagnosed with ADHD (University of Illinois, n.d.). The hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms are more prevalent in males and are more severe earlier in their childhood. Many children with ADHD also experience secondary problems, which can include academic problems and problems with their peers (University of Illinois, n.d.).
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (del Campo et al, 2011). The disorder begins in early childhood and persists into adolescence, and for 70% it continues on to adulthood (Sharma & Couture, 2014). Those who suffer ADHD experience challenges, particularly during their development. Impulsivity and inattention often result in lower performance in school, and greater incidents of motor accidents and¬ risky behaviour. Additionally, individuals with ADHD have higher rates of one or more comorbidities including major depression and anxiety disorders (Sharma & Couture).
It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. But for children with the disorder these symptoms are constantly occurring in their young lives. The symptoms continue and can cause difficulty in several settings. This behavioral disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together but one can occur without the other. When present, the symptoms of hyperactivity are almost always visible at the age of seven years and may be also visible at a younger age. The lack of attention is not completely obvious until the child faces certain situations, such as school work. A child with ADHD might have hard time paying attention, be easily distracted, have difficulty listening to others, daydream a lot, inter...
The defining characteristics of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Inattention means lacking attention. A child with symptoms of inattention may have trouble listening and following directions or staying organized. Hyperactivity describes when a child is unusually and effortlessly excited. Short attention span and strong emotions describe a person who is hyperactive. And finally, impulsivity is when a person carries out a behavior without prior thought of the consequences. Impulsivity can be behavior, as in the things a person does, or cognitive, as in the way a person thinks and makes choices. A child with ADHD may experience difficulties at home, school, and with friends. At home a child may have trou...
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder is a disorder composed of three major components: inattentiveness, impulsivity, and motor hyperactivity. Symptoms of these components include excessive fidgeting with hands or feet, repeated difficulty remaining seated, following through on instructions, extreme difficulty in attempting to play quietly, and excessive interruption of conversations, just to list a few. A child with ADHD can bear one or all of these features, depending on the severity of the case. These children usually have functional impairments in a variety of places including the home, school, and in relationships with fellow peers. These signs can come and go, being extremely prevalent one day and unnoticeable the next.
For a typical person with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sitting down to do a task such as homework can be agonizing, the physical act of staying in place, being as difficult as concentrating on the work. The person with ADHD may go on in life to have social problems because symptoms such as hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, are mistaken as laziness or self-centeredness (14). The problems of ADHD often develop further manifesting as compulsive disorder, depression, school and job failure, relationship trouble, and substance addiction (5). ADHD is a psychiatric disorder, first documented by the medical society in 1902, that is diagnosed in 3%-5% of school age children (14). Although, there have been many changes in the understanding of the still puzzling disorder, the diagnostic criteria now given for ADHD are given by the DSM-IV, which provides lists of symptoms for three types. The person can have the hyperactivity type, the inattentive type, or a combination of the two, which is a third type. In order to be diagnosed with either type the person must express six of the symptoms from one category or the other, and the symptoms must have been present for at least six months. The person has the combination type if they have six symptoms from both categories (8) .
Sushevska, L., Olumchev, N., Saveska, M., & Kadri, H. (2011). Analysis of Subtypes and Other Associated Conditions of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in School Population from 6 to 12 Years of Age. Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, 28(1), 53-58.
The most common behaviors of ADHD fall into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. People with ADHD may show several signs of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive and impulsive, or they may show all three types of behavior. Inattention is when people have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. They may find it agonizing to do homework without getting bored. Often they will forget to plan ahead by writing down the assignment or bringing home the right books. When finally trying to do work they may find themselves drifting to something else; as a result, work will rarely get done.
The CDC web page provides excellent information about the signs and symptoms of ADHD. The web site also lists the three different types of ADHD which are Predominantly Inattentive Presentation, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive