Antonin Artaud and the Modern Theater; New Jersey: Associated UP, 1994. Romani, Felice; Norma (libretto) trans. Olcese, Stefano, 2000. Romani, Frederico; Alexandre Soumet and his Three Muses; Minnesota Opera Pubs. 2003.
Many of the operas written during this time are still performed today and are highly acclaimed. For the most part, before Italy became a main player, France and Germany were the main areas for music. These composer’s lives were extremely important in the development of the romantic period of opera and they really put Italy in the eye of the public for their amazing operas and musical styles. “Bel canto,” which translated literally means “beautiful singing,” was a very important factor taken into consideration in the romantic era. According to Charles Osborne, bel canto singing can be defined as “a method of singing taught by the Italian masters […] in which smooth emission of tone, beauty of timbre and elegance of phrasing are among the most important elements (Osborne, intro).” The main style of voice for this “bel canto” singing is the coloratura.
Lynan, Peter. George Frideric Handel Biography - ( 1685 – 1759 ), Halle, Hamburg, and Italy, Hanover and early London years, Opera, Oratorio. http://arts.jrank.org/pages/3117/George-Frideric-Handel.html MacKay, Alison. "GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL". Tafelmusik’s music education initiatives.
Manipulation of Lyrics in As You Like It While it is a comedy of the turmoil of love and the experimentation with gender roles and identity, William Shakespeare's As you Like It is a historical preservation of Renaissance music. The play is fraught with spontaneous song and poetry, yet Shakespeare strategically manipulates these musical elements. Specifically, the lyrics and poetry of the play function to establish a soundtrack and a direct appeal to their Elizabethan audience, while providing Shakespeare with a valuable shorthand for character development. It is necessary to understand that music in Shakespeare's time functions as a complete renovation of sound, voice, and function. Paul Brian emphasizes that "whereas the music of the middle ages is predominately sacred, there is a great flourishing of ideas dedicated to secular topics, predominantly love, in the 15th through early 17th centuries" (1).
In 1664 Lully collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Molière and started composing comédies-ballets. He didn’t thing the French language was appropriate for large works but was good for ballets. Perrin, a French composer, introduced opera around this time and Lully thought it was absurd. However, when Perrin’s “Promone” succeeded, Lully changed his mind. Perrin ended up in prison over a money dispute and Lully bought the opera patent from him.
Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, n.d. Sternfeld, F. W. Music in Shakespearean Tragedy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963. HSU ML8O.55.58 Walter, J. H. Introduction to King Henry V. Ed. Walter. The Arden Ed.
Anthology for music in western civilization. Boston: Schurmer Cenegage Learning, 2010. Sermisy, Claudin de. “Je n’ay point plus d’affection.” In Antology of Renaissance Music, ed. Allan W. Atlas.
2 (2013): 240-253. Law, John E., and Bernadette Paton. Communes and Despots in Medieval and Renaissance Italy. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2010. Morreale, Laura K. “French Literature, Florentine Politics, and Vernacular Historical Writing, 1270-1348.” Speculum 85, no.