The first step in the process is the ovarian stimulation. This step involves drugs. The hormone that’s taken over 8-14 days, fuels and stimulates the ovaries to produce more than one egg each cycle (The In Vitro Process). IVF requires several eggs because there is a chance that some eggs might not develop fine after fertilization. After that, the doctor will use ultrasound or he will test the blood in order to decide when it is necessary for him to take out the eggs.
The medication is given to help ripen the eggs to start a process called ovulation. The injections that women receive in her hormones help her produce many eggs. The male can also take medications to produce more sperm. The number of eggs received correlates with IVF success rates. In the egg retrieval process females receive blood and ultrasound testing is completed every 1-3 days to check the development of the follicles in the ovaries.
After conception comes the process of fertilization, which is the process in which sperm cells must be present in the woman's reproductive tract at the time the egg enters the fallopian tube. This can happen in several ways. If the woman has intercourse with a man during the week preceding ovulation, then he may deposit semen (a fluid containing sperm cells) into the woman's vagina. Some of the sperm can make their way through the cervix (the opening of the uterus, located at the end of the vagina), into the uterus, and on up into the fallopian tubes. There, one of them may meet with the egg as it travels down one of the tubes toward the uterus.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which an egg (oocyte) from a woman’s ovaries is removed and separately fertilized with male sperm in a laboratory before being implanted into the woman’s fallopian tubes. 1 2 The first stage of IVF is called superovulation. Follicles are structures within which the oocyte develops, in order to retrieve multiple follicles several hormone and drug combinations are administered. Consequently, the ovary stops function and allows the follicles to ripen at the same time when stimulated therefore providing an increased number of eggs to harvest. Follicles are considered mature after 8 to 9 days and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is administered which enables the final maturation of the oocytes.3 Oocyte retrieval occurs through a procedure called ultrasound guided vaginal retrieval.
The technique of in vitro fertilization or IVF removes several eggs from the ovaries for fertilization in the laboratory. After a few days, one or two of these fertilized eggs which are now known as embryos are returned to the uterus in the hope that they implant and become a pregnancy. Women undergoing IVF are given special reproductive hormones to encourage several eggs to develop in the ovaries. Final maturation of the egg itself is induced by the administration of a further hormone. Thirty-six hours later, the fluid containing the eggs are drawn from the ovary with a needle; this is usually performed under light sedation in a short, outpatient procedure with the doctor using ultra-sound to check proceedings.
In vitro fertilization or fertilisation is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro . The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman 's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova from the woman 's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then implanted in the same or another woman 's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. IVF techniques can be used in different types of situations. It is a technique of assisted reproductive technology for treatment of infertility.
Step three involves the fertilisation and insemination process. The eggs and sperm are placed together and stored in an environmentally controlled incubator. If the doctor does not think fertilization will occur, the sperm may be directly inserted into the egg (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) (see figure 3). Figure 3: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection The fourth and final step involves the embryo transfer. This process involves the placement of embryos into the women’s uterus.
Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8146712 [Accessed 25 Apr. 2014]. Mayoclinic.org, (2014). In vitro fertilization (IVF) Risks - Tests and Procedures - Mayo Clinic. [online] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/in-vitro-fertilization/basics/risks/prc-20018905 [Accessed 25 Apr.
This pathway is also known as the male reproductive tract. The parts of the female reproductive system work together to produce pin- head size eggs that join with a male's sperm to fertilize one of the eggs. The system nourishes the egg until it forms a full-grown baby. Then, once the baby is born, it produces milk for the baby. The main parts of a female reproductive system are the ovaries, the oviducts (also called the fallopian tubes), uterus (womb), vagina, vulva and the breasts (where the milk for the baby is released).
In the ordinary process, the man's sperm enters into the woman's uterus upon completion of the sex act, and a sperm then fertilizes an egg within the uterus, if the woman happens to be in the right phase of her menstrual cycle. With in vitro fertilization, on the other hand, the fertilization process happens within laboratory equipment, outside of the woman, after both the woman and the man have contributed reproductive cells to the doctors. This is why an infant who is produced in this way is colloquially sometimes referred to as a "test-tube baby:" the moment of conception occurs not within the uterus of the mother but rather within the relevant laboratory tools. In vitro fertilization, while it can in fact successfully produce an embryo, has several risks that the woman should perhaps consider before following through with the process. This has to do both with the side effects of the fertility medications prescribed to the woman as well as the somewhat invasive nature of first retrieving eggs from the woman and then reinserting an embryo into the woman.