Selenium acts inside the cell to capture and destroy peroxides produced by the oxidation process of free radicals before they can alter the cell membrane (Coomer). However, there is a very small margin between the amount of selenium needed for optimal health and the amount that results in selenium toxicity in people. High levels of selenium can cause dizziness, irritability, fatigue, bronchitis, garlic breath odor, brittle nails and hair, and reduced hemoglobin levels (Canadian). In livestock, excessive levels of selenium are one of the main agents of poisoning in the western United States. Two ca... ... middle of paper ... ...tml.
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2013).The main biochemical characteristics of apoptosis include caspase activation and DNA fragmentation (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997, Du, Fang et al. 2000). Apoptosis is induced by various physiological or toxic signals such as chemotherapeutics, DNA damage, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Impaired cell death is a characteristic of cancer cells, determining their resistance to apoptotic signals, (Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013) which is one of the six essential alterations in cell biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011, Hartman and Czyz 2013) and remains critical in effective cancer treatment strategies (Adams and Cory 2007).
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Metals are inorganic form of contaminants whose extensive use has caused significant environmental pollution that mainly affects soil, watercourses, atmosphere and living systems (Kasassi et al., 2008). Mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium (VI) are considered as toxic metals; whereas, copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc are not as toxic, but their e... ... middle of paper ... ...displaying synthetic phytochelatins. Biotechnol Bioeng.70:518–24. Majare, M. and Bulow, L. (2001): Metal-binding proteins and peptides in bioremediation andphytoremediation of heavy metals. TIBTECH.
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