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Importance of Living Modified Organisms and Genetically Modified Organisms

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We possibly overlook the microorganisms when thinking of LMO since plants and animals probably will first come to our mind. With the development of recombinant DNA technology, metabolic potentials of microorganisms are being explored. Nowadays, genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) have vast applications in human and animal health, bioremediation, and in industries such as food and textiles. The first GMM, specifically E. coli, was made in the 1970s (Teisha, 2013). A few years later, GMMs which produced essential human proteins were churned out by researchers (Teisha, 2013). Insulin, interferons (IFNs), and interleukins are among the famous proteins that are now produced by GMMs for therapeutic purpose. Human insulin was produced by genetically modified E. coli with exogenous human insulin genes inserted (Johnson, 1983). Besides, human growth hormone is also produced by modified E. coli containing the native human growth hormone genes (Cronin, 1997).
The gene which encodes IFN γ was introduced into E. coli under regulation of tryptophan promoter and operator cassette (Lei, 2004). Hence, the production of IFN γ in the presence of tryptophan in the medium during the first phase of fermentation is repressed, while it is not to be repressed during second phase when a tryptophan analog is added to the medium (Lei, 2004). Under this system, the production of recombinants IFN γ is regulated, so that the cell mass are accumulated adequately before the production starts (Lei, 2004). Besides IFN γ, there are also other recombinant therapeutic proteins, like IFN α-2a, IFN β-1b, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Lei, 2004). The production of these therapeutic proteins in fast-growing and easily manipulated microorgan...

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