Architecture has always been an integral part of the society and its culture. It not only defines the space of the community that it participates in but it also shapes the community’s place in history. Moreover, historians all over the world have found architecture playing a key role while they study the communities in time periods. Architecture helps the historian decipher the civilization's daily life and the values they hold. The historians are able to decipher as such by looking at the recurring structural feature and ornamental feature of certain buildings of certain time period. Some of the significant feature of the building usually defines the political regime or the religious values of the civilization.
Architecture has been known as the product of aesthetics, structure, and function that serves to address social needs, resolve environmental and humanitarian problems through built form. Architecture not only shelters, but also has the ability to consolidate boundaries within our society. It realizes the role by physically defining space and by imposing its symbolic, representative meaning onto our living environment. As Ludwig Wittgenstein once said, “Architecture immortalizes and glorifies something”. Indeed, architecture must be documentary and didac...
‘New museology’ is the concept of modernising museums and making them more interesting and interactive for the visitors. The District Six Museum is a good example of new museology because it is a relatively new museum that was started and run by the community, not the state and it is very different to older museums. It is very appropriate to have a museum like this in South Africa, because what happened in District Six should not be forgotten and museums like this one encourage people to visit them and find out more about what has happened. Part of new museology is to teach people more about what happened in the past by using more interactive displays; the District Six Museum does this by using a range of interesting and interactive displays.
He suggests that the use of “electronic imaging prevents imagining and promotes thinking about architecture rather than bring architects, contractors, clients and critics to think within architecture” (275). Inspired by Frascari, the strategy of technography is encouraged (278). This is a “different way of thinking about the relationship between a [working] drawing and a future building. Rather than “simply Cartesian, technical lines showing edges, corners and joints these technographic drawings reveal both the symbolic and instrumental representations of the future building.. it is to make visible what is invisible”. Ridgway remarks, “The fact that any of this could be considered contentious indicates that extent to which architects have become alienated from the heart of their profession” (279). He asserts, “Part of any technography must be an acknowledgement of the historical context of construction knowledge. This is not only so we can better understand our rich architectural ancestry, but because it re-establishes a connection with the origins of our profession in building” (279). Rather than a “miniature projected representation of an imagined building, details are drawn as poetic constructions themselves, following the logic of drawing and not building and representing the “built detail symbolically, in addition to instrumentally. The symbolic and practical are one and the same thing” (280). “What are the symbolic qualities we are trying to embody in our buildings and how would we represent them in drawings?” becomes the question (278). These drawing “may not be easy or straightforward to understand or interpret.
When linking the concept of cultural relativism to architecture, one would realize that both these components depend on each other. One cannot exist without the other (Kohler, 2003). Kohler remarks that in order for architecture to be progressive, The transfer and acceptance of technologies and techniques has to be based on a sound knowledge of regional culture (Kohler, 2003). In other words, the existing architecture or urban environment has to distinguish the features of regional diversity. Cultural exchange must consider the environment. No clash exists between regional and environmental appropriate construction techniques (Kohler, 2003). This is so because traditional architecture has adopted economic and environmental solutions. Conflict can only exist if one considers the ‘international style’ that has popularized the modern era with its high resource consumption. Kohler (2003) also stresses that there should be no regional cultural boundaries in order for architecture to be progressive (Kohler, 2003:86)
The history of Architecture started long time ago. The nomadic were groups of people whom move from one place to another in order find shelter and food to survive. As they progress, their techniques to survive evolve. The need for a permanent shelter became vital for a better stability of the group. This is the time when the first structures that provided protection appeared. Post and lintel were the first forms of Architecture, that satisficed the basic needs. Architecture evolved to be more sophisticated and fulfill the people’s needs. Consequently, Architecture evolved throughout different periods such as: Ancient architecture, Romanesque, The medieval, Renaissance, Early modern, and the industrial age, Modernism and Contemporary architecture. During the Medieval period a style of Architecture named Gothic Architecture was very notorious. The concept of this type of Architecture still continuous now days, in the city of Los Angeles many building have taken this concept of Gothic Architectural Style and have developed to a new level of experience and expression. Some of them have recreated in a modern way the features of the physical aspects of this style. Other structures have taken this concept beyond the physical features and used the emotional concept behind Gothic Style to connect people feelings with magnificent elements of the Cathedrals.
When reading books on historic preservation, there are numerous strategies and sources of information informing the reader on the way in which countless properties and structures are lost or saved each year. While the books greatly pertain to historic preservation of sites and structures, there are chapters within the books Keeping Time by William Murtagh and Nearby History by David Kyvig and Myron Marty which pertain to instances and conditions that are more widely seen in museums. These two chapters pertain to the history and criteria of outdoor museums as well as what classifies artifact and how and where they are found. Once reading these two books the reader is able to see that the fields of preservation and museum studies correlate greatly with one another in many ways. Due to the correlation between these two major fields of learning and preservation, in the future historic sides, structures, and original artifacts will be preserved. Due to the knowledge, explanation, and criteria of what makes them important for our societies today, everyday individuals understand what makes these locations important. In the following chapters, it gives important insight into the ways in which museum professionals can work together with preservationists to work to educate and save historic sites.
Architecture is the concept of bringing structure, materiality, form and space together as a whole, provide people with enclosed atmosphere to experience. Considering this, it is important to identify that materiality and the purpose of details has been a key methodology to bringing architectural intentions into the design in an affective manner, more over producing an architectural expression. However, this position is rather declining in architecture, reducing tectonics and materiality to being secondary to form and space. With the start of modernism, the attempt to achieve minimalistic style has caused detailing to increasingly develop into a decorative aspect of a building, neglecting its individual contribution to architecture.
As Nuttgens eloquently expressed, architecture is a “vital…expression of the experience of mankind.” It is more than just buildings used for storage, housing, religious purposes, simple functionality; it is a great manifestation of the commonality of man, the great connecting factor of humankind. However, it can be argued that the ancient and classic forms or architecture are in essence more “profound…lasting… [and] inexhaustible” than those of their modern counterparts, because of some key differences in the ways ancient and modern architecture are practiced.