Pedogenesis in Western Washington and Northern Alaska: A Comparison of the Primary Factors Introduction: Pedology is partially based on the established principle that soil changes are directly correlated to specific biotic communities and regional climatic patterns. From this principle questions have arisen as to why the Arctic tundra that lies above the treeline in Alaska displays similar chemical characteristics to that of the well-developed Podzols and Spodosols found in the coniferous forests of Washington. The Podzols and Spodsols of these coniferous forests are defined by their cool and humid regional climates and by the acidic parent material from which they formed. Recent studies indicate that the E and Bs horizons that define the temperate forest soils are also found above the treeline in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia (Ugolini, Stoner, & Marret, 1987). What role does biota play in the current soil formation for each of the sites?
The purpose of soil erosion is to show how the relationship between precipitation and soil along with how it can make water. It will identify the causes and effects, the process, and solutions of soil erosion. This will discuss what farmers and others need to be mindful of due to soil erosion of their lands and crops. Soil erosion is identified as a “the wearing away of rocks and other deposits on the earth's surface by the action of water, ice, wind and the act of process of eroding or the state of being eroded.” (Dictionary.com, 2017) When soil erosion occurs it can cause damage due to decrease of topsoil and the inability to store water and nutrients for plants. Natural causes can damage the land and growth of crops from rain water
A drumlin may form when when an advancing glacier runs over an earlier glacial moraine. Consequently, the moraine is swept into long strips. Drumlins develop into long, narrow, rounded ridges of till with a long axis that runs para...
Carbon sinks are found when there is a collection of carbon dioxide within a reservoir. Both, the terrestrial and aquatic systems, can act as natural carbon sinks, as can the atmosphere, where the collections of carbon dioxide as well as carbon dioxide emissions are high. The efficiency of these sinks has been declining since the 1990’s (Canadell et al. 2007). Approximately, 50% of carbon dioxide emissions are collected in the terrestrial and oceanic sinks (Ritschard 1992), which are detrimental to the ecosystem.
... ... middle of paper ... ... is generally the lacking nutrient in northern ecosystem soils, and the key determinate of C stocks, sequestration and vegetation growth rates. The short growing season in high latitude support also C and N accumulation rather turnover. Following Walker (1996) we can summarize control mechanisms for element movement and nutrient cycling in permafrost affected soils by the following points: “(1) parent material characteristics and weathering rates; (2) migration of water and heat during freezing; (3) biotic components present in the plant canopy and the relative rates of production and decomposition; (4) enzymatic activity rates of soil organisms; (5) vertical and horizontal movement of water trough the soil during the growing season”. The interaction of the outlined factors control the processes of primary production and turnover which in turn affect C dynamics.
If it is pure hydrocarbon and is burned completely, it releases CO2 which is a green house gas. Texas leads the nation in CO2 emissions which has resulted in weather change from adequate rain to drought conditions. Texas emits about 11 percent of U.S. greenhouse-gas, more than any other state, according to Kim Chapman in BusinessWeek earlier this year. If Texas were a country it would be the world’s eighth-largest polluter. Coal has been used as a fuel source since 1819.
Tilling the soil results in dislodging the cohesiveness of the soil particles, thereby inducing erosion. It causes chemical runoff. Tillage not only reduces organic matter in the soil but also reduces microbes, earthworms, ants, etc. It destroys soil aggregates. It also causes eutrophication, nutrient runoff into a body of
It will address a variety of regional elements, such as climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, geomorphology, and geology. A variety of sites located on the Canadian Shield, the zone of thick glacial deposits to the south, and the transition between them will be the focus of the report. It is supplemented with previous research on the region. September 8, 1999, day one of the field study involved an area of largely granite bedrock that is part of the Canadian Shield and is the most northern point of study (see Map 2). September 9, 1999, day two, involved three main areas of study: the Bridgenorth esker (Map 3), Mark S. Burnham Park (Map 4), and the Rice Lake drumlin (Map 6).
It is very well known that soils play a key role in agriculture. In the absence of suitable soil we would be unable to grow plants i.e. food crops which are equally important for the continuity of animals as well as humans. There are many different types of soil found in Pakistan but basically they are divided into 25 categories. Soil can be defined in so many different ways but with respect to agriculture one can defined soil as a granular matter or organic mineral which is present on the surface of the earth in which we use to grow different plants of our requirement.
The trends of the major soil degradation are almost difficult to measure because they are constantly changing. Soil degradation such as, the erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing, biodiversity decline is the significant soil degradation. These degradations occur at the land surface as a poor agriculture. Soil Salinity is known as the salt content in the soil, and the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. It is considered to be as a significant environmental problem because people are more worried about the other environmental problems and they are unaware how important it is while it keeps increasing.