(2015). Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Principle and practice. Surakarta: Era PustakaUtama. Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of languageteacher education.
Another study conducted by Ko... ... middle of paper ... ... reading: The effects on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for students of different verbal abilities. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 285-297. Kost, C., Foss, P., & Lenzini, J. (1999). Textual and pictorial gloss: Effectiveness on incidental vocabulary growth when reading in a foreign language.
C. A Brief Introduction about Teaching Grammar When it comes to how teachers teach students, a heated debate is raised regarding whether we should use inductive approach or deductive approach. The former refers to the approach realized by providing some implicit focus on grammar during communicative language teaching (Fotos, 1998). On this stage, usually, learners are provided with opportunities to learn passive voice through specified communicative activities, and they are required to explore these grammatical structures in context. As a result, students are sure of the pu... ... middle of paper ... ...rine J. Doughty. (2009).
Critical Literacy and Content Literacy Connections Critical literacy is the ability to read and write in a way that results in a deeper understanding. Critical literacy is an approach that teaches students “to exercise their critical faculties to filter what they understand and are asked to believe from texts” (Temple, Ogle, Crawford, & Freppon). Content area literacy “emphasize two ideas: 1) the significance of reading to learn and 2) the importance of teaching students to become more proficient and efficient readers of content area texts.” (Swafford & Kallus). In essence, critical literacy serves as the foundation for content literacy. The ultimate goal of critical literacy and content literacy is enabling students to be able to analyze and evaluate text.
Works Cited 1-Lindsay,C & Knight,P. (2006)learning and teaching English. 1st addition.Great Clarendon Street:Oxford. 2-Curran,C. (2007) community language learning.
1. Introduction Needs Analysis (NA) also interchangeably referred to as Needs Assessment is a tool to collect data on the multifaceted needs of the learners’ for an instructional programme. It is basically an information gathering process, fundamental to English Language Teaching (ELT) programmes, and criterial to English for Specific Purposes (ESP) (Dudely Evans: 1998, Hutchinson & Waters: 1987). NA is carried out from the perspective of the learners mostly; however, perceptions of other stakeholders are also taken into account. Warrington (2005) points out that NA, in ELT contexts, may investigate “what kinds of English, native language, and literacy skills the learner already believes he or she has; the literacy contexts in which the learner lives and works; what the learner wants and needs to know to function in those contexts; and what the learner expects to gain from the instructional program.” Furthermore, it “focuses and builds on learners’ accomplishments and abilities rather than on deficits, allowing learners to articulate and display what they already know and can do” (Auerbach & Holt, 1994).
Oxford: Blackwell. Nickel, Gerhard. “The Role Of Interlanguage In Foreign Language Teaching.” IRAL: International Review Of Applied Linguistics In Language Teaching 36.1 (1998): 1. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Richards, Jack C. “Social Factors, Interlanguage, and Language Learning.” Language Learning, 22.2 (1972): 159-188.
Genre analysis is a study of the lang... ... middle of paper ... ... Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tinkham, T. (1993). The effects of semantic clustering on the learning of second language vocabulary.
Modelling and Assessing Second Language Acquisition. 77- 99.Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Nunan (1989) .Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge University Press. Nunan (2004) .Task – based Language Teaching.