Consequently, associating the traditional assessment with certain alternative assessments could create better learning environment and enhance the learning-teaching process for both learners and teachers though engaging the learners directly in different stages of this process. In fact, some research addresses the benefits of providing the students with an active role in taking the responsibility of l... ... middle of paper ... ...thout grading it, and then gives it back to the students to evaluate their work according to a rubric (see appendix 2), and return it back to the teacher. This procedure is repeated before and after every formative test. At the end of the course, the learners fill in a survey questionnaire to understand the feasibility of the self assessment and tell about their experience. Interviews with some learners are done to clarify some obscure aspects.
However, in practice, their students use "top-down" process to guess theme and then adopt "bottom-up" process to check their understanding. Therefore, English teachers should use both processes in listening activities to help their students can practice both of them: "bottom-up" and "top-down". Furthermore, the combination of "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing is also called "interactive" processing (Peterson, 2001). In the classrooms, all pre-listening activities are one of good methods to help students integrate "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing when listening. For example, before listening, teachers should provide a lesson on the specific topic to bring students' level of content schema which help students can better comprehend the target text.
1.1 Background of the Study Interaction between teacher and students are a part of learning language process. Teachers usually use the term ‘motivation’ when they describe successful and unsuccessful learners (Dörnyei, 2001). Teachers are seen as the role model who can motivate students. Therefore, teachers must be able to make students aware and enjoy while learning process in the classroom. In fact, motivation is not a simple process to do by the teacher (Dörnyei, 2001).
Assessments not only serve as the tool for measuring students’ understanding, it is also for the teachers to improve their teaching. They also need to differentiate their assessments based on the cognitive needs of the students. Effective teachers use three types of assessment. Diagnostic Assessment (DA), which is widely known as pre-assessment or prior knowledge assessment is used by the teachers to check the skills of the students, which will be helpful for the planning and guide DI (ASCD website). Formative Assessment (FA) is those ongoing assessments, helps teachers understand the grey areas, and helps them to clear the misconceptions by immediately acting on it.
Formative Assessment is used in any classroom to check students understanding of a topic. The type of formative assessment used in each classroom is different, depending on the teacher and the student’s needs. Teachers should incorporate a variety of formative assessments to truly see if students are learning. Dixson and Worrell describe formative assessment as gathering data to improve student learning. They are correct but teachers also need to provide students with feedback.
When doing this, the students’ motivation increases as they have an evidence of their progress. On the other hand, they evaluate the teaching process. The teacher evaluates its own teaching practice, the materials and methods used in relation to the achievement of the educational objectives established in order to review and update the teaching structure of work. Moreover, children who need special support can be identified to plan immediate remedial action. In one of the activities the teacher saw that one of the students has language problems.
Assessment is an important aspect in teaching. It allows teachers to gauge learner progress and development. It also helps teachers to measure their performance as a teacher and whether their teaching methodologies and transformation of the content knowledge to the learners are effective. This article concerns the use of assessment for learning (formative assessment) and assessment of learning (summative assessment), and how one can affect the other in either positive or negative ways. The two main purposes of assessment discussed in this article are for helping learning and for summarizing learning.
In practice, the students learn the concept through understanding, and decide for themselves what they think the concept is. Both approaches have positives and negative in teaching students the concept. In the end, the difference is the approach the teacher takes. At times, a mixture of both is necessary to help all students. Not all students learn the same requiring teachers to differentiate and use different
In addition, teachers must be able to identify through their assessments what learning abilities each student had already developed and teach him or her accordingly in order to minimize the amount of time taken away from instruction. Then, teachers may emphasize on small-group instruction to allow students to interact. Also, They can daily monitoring students progress by using charts that illustrated small steps of progress so students can visually see their gains. At the same talking, they can praise each student at least once a day to encourage them to remain on tasks. Being said, I would love to finish this paper with a
d. Giving an example sentence or model. Teacher gives sentences examples remind students about how to use vocabulary in that sentence in the proper context. Teachers must be take advantage of a variety of teaching techniques and vocabulary can make the students begin to understand a word. So it will be achieved the goal of the learning process effective and efficient. In this study, a teacher using cooperative learning model and the techniques used are techniques two stay and two stray (TS-TS), think pair share (TPS), etc.